Реферат на тему:
THE STYLISTIC METHOD
OF BERNARD SHAW.
Bernard Shaw always considered that the purpose of a writer was not to
entertain or satisfy aesthetic needs of the reader, but to criticize and
improve. He viewed art as a strong means of influencing the society. His
plays are devoted to various social problems. Shaw believed that
personal life was interconnected with social conditions.
Following Ibsen, he supported social-critical stream in drama. But Shaw,
unlike Ibsen, chose not tragical, but comical situations [2: 14]. He is
considered to be a founder of problematic drama where he criticized
burning political and social issues of the day.
B.Shaw was called a reformer of English theatre. He viewed a stage as a
place for discussion, a clash of ideas, raising vital problems. The
playwright created a new structure of drama – problematic play-symposium
[3: 16]. Shaw’s ideas and beliefs are rendered chiefly through the
dialogue. The personages usually have their own particular views of life
and collisions between them usually serve as opportunities for
expressing their thoughts.
Bernard Shaw's publicist attitude towards the drama demanded an
effective language. His ideas are expressed in short wise, witty
sayings, aphorisms, as they are called. When writing on the social
contradictions of the 20th century, he often uses striking paradoxes,
which bring out his attitude to England's 19th century conventions. One
of Shaw’s favourite stylistic devices is a paradox (we understand it as
a strange point of view, far from commonly expected and contradictory to
the common sense). The truth is often hidden behind such paradoxes. It
is discovered that paradoxes turn trivial opinions upside down
disclosing their foolishness and hypocrisy, e.g.:
The love of money is the root of all evil.
When people are very poor, you cannot help them, no matter how much you
may sympathize with them. It does them more harm than good in the long
The dirtier a place is the more rent you get.
I'll have to learn to speak middle-class language from you, instead of
speaking proper English.
The great secret... is not having bad manners or good manners or any
other particular sort of manners, but having the same manner for all
Time enough to think of the future when you haven't any future to think
Independence? That's middle-class blasphemy. We are all dependent on one
another, every soul of us on earth.
One of Shaw’s plays is called "The Apple Cart" (1929). There is an
English proverb "to upset the apple-cart" which means that having
turned the cart with apples upside down it is impossible to put them in
the same order again. Shaw’s plays and striking paradoxes can be
compared to that person who upsets the cart – Shaw threw the apples of
criticism very persistently destroying commonly accepted views – and
after his stinging critics the society couldn’t remain the same [4; 6:
In his comedy "Arms and the Man" the playwright criticized romantic
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