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НазваThe stylistic method of Bernard Shaw(реферат)
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Bernard Shaw always considered that the purpose of a writer was not to

entertain or satisfy aesthetic needs of the reader, but to criticize and

improve. He viewed art as a strong means of influencing the society. His

plays are devoted to various social problems. Shaw believed that

personal life was interconnected with social conditions.


Following Ibsen, he supported social-critical stream in drama. But Shaw,

unlike Ibsen, chose not tragical, but comical situations [2: 14]. He is

considered to be a founder of problematic drama where he criticized

burning political and social issues of the day.


B.Shaw was called a reformer of English theatre. He viewed a stage as a

place for discussion, a clash of ideas, raising vital problems. The

playwright created a new structure of drama – problematic play-symposium

[3: 16]. Shaw’s ideas and beliefs  are rendered chiefly through the

dialogue. The personages usually have their own particular views of life

and collisions between them usually serve as opportunities for

expressing their thoughts.


Bernard Shaw's publicist attitude towards the drama demanded an

effective language. His ideas are expressed in short wise, witty

sayings, aphorisms, as they are called. When writing on the social

contradictions of the 20th century, he often uses striking paradoxes,

which bring out his attitude to England's 19th century conventions. One

of Shaw’s favourite stylistic devices is a paradox (we understand it as

a strange point of view, far from commonly expected and contradictory to

the common sense). The truth is often hidden behind such paradoxes. It

is discovered that paradoxes turn trivial opinions upside down

disclosing their foolishness and hypocrisy, e.g.:


The love of money is the root of all evil.


When people are very poor, you cannot help them, no matter how much you

may sympathize with them. It does them more harm than good in the long



The dirtier a place is the more rent you get.


I'll have to learn to speak middle-class language from you, instead of

speaking proper English.


The great secret... is not having bad manners or good manners or any

other particular sort of manners, but having the same manner for all

human souls.


Time enough to think of the future when you haven't any future to think



Independence? That's middle-class blasphemy. We are all dependent on one

another, every soul of us on earth.


One of Shaw’s plays is called "The Apple Cart" (1929). There is an

English proverb "to upset the apple-cart" which means that having 

turned the cart with apples upside down it is impossible to put them in

the same order again. Shaw’s plays and striking paradoxes can be

compared to that person who upsets the cart – Shaw threw the apples of

criticism very persistently destroying commonly accepted views – and

after his stinging critics the society couldn’t remain the same [4; 6:



In his comedy "Arms and the Man" the playwright criticized romantic

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