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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваГендер і мова. Дослідження зв’язку між поняттями (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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на тему:

“Гендер і мова. 

Дослідження зв’язку між поняттями”

(англійською мовою)


Introduction. Much of the meaning conveyed Contemporary equality
movement has focused much attention on the issues of socialization into
gender roles and of sexist discourse. These issues are profoundly
interrelated, since the everyday discourse with which children are
surrounded from the day of their birth, in which they themselves become
eventual participants, is a primary means by which socialization is
effected about what it is to be female and male. In fact, implicit
meanings are undoubtedly more effective, insofar as they remain
unquestioned, and hence unproblematic. Equality between men and women,
in particular, have questioned social attitudes and social practice
concerning gender and, by doing so, have rendered problematic what was
previously, for many, entirely uncontentious-a non-issue. By naming
certain attitudes and behavior sexist, a word that did not exist until
very recently, attention has been focused on those attitudes and
behavior in a way that was not previously possible. The equality stance,
speaking on behalf of women, has been highly critical of contemporary
society. They have seen women's interests as consistently subordinated
to those of men, women's personalities systematically distorted in the
service of their subordination, women's capacities underrated or denied,
their desire for autonomy frustrated and ridiculed, their sexuality at
one and the same time denied, feared, and exploited, and their image
trivialized and sentimentalized. Much of the response to this
comprehensive naming of social injustice with respect to women has been
to deny that any injustice is involved, to deny that the issue of gender
is in any way problematic: men are men, women are women, and that's
that. The basis of such denial of the problematic nature of gender is
usually that male and female are seen as fundamental, natural,
self-evident categories (for some, they have the even greater force of
being regarded as God-given categories), whose naturalness and
obviousness depends on seeing the social category of gender as deriving
automatically and exclusively from the biological category of sex...
There is no doubt that the biological difference between male and female
is of considerable importance in human societies. It seems equally
beyond doubt that what is regarded as appropriate behavior for males and
females, other than that directly consequent on those biological
differences differ widely from one society to another. It is also
readily observable that even where social expectations are strong and
explicit, some variability in the behavior of males and females does
occur: many will conform to expected patterns of behavior, but some
 will not. All of this suggests that biological sex (identification as
female or male) needs to be distinguished from social gender
(identification as feminine or masculine), since the latter is not an
automatic consequence of the former. If gender is a social creation,
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