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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваГендер і мова. Дослідження зв’язку між поняттями (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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на тему:


“Гендер і мова.


Дослідження зв’язку між поняттями”


(англійською мовою)




Introduction. Much of the meaning conveyed Contemporary equality

movement has focused much attention on the issues of socialization into

gender roles and of sexist discourse. These issues are profoundly

interrelated, since the everyday discourse with which children are

surrounded from the day of their birth, in which they themselves become

eventual participants, is a primary means by which socialization is

effected about what it is to be female and male. In fact, implicit

meanings are undoubtedly more effective, insofar as they remain

unquestioned, and hence unproblematic. Equality between men and women,

in particular, have questioned social attitudes and social practice

concerning gender and, by doing so, have rendered problematic what was

previously, for many, entirely uncontentious-a non-issue. By naming

certain attitudes and behavior sexist, a word that did not exist until

very recently, attention has been focused on those attitudes and

behavior in a way that was not previously possible. The equality stance,

speaking on behalf of women, has been highly critical of contemporary

society. They have seen women's interests as consistently subordinated

to those of men, women's personalities systematically distorted in the

service of their subordination, women's capacities underrated or denied,

their desire for autonomy frustrated and ridiculed, their sexuality at

one and the same time denied, feared, and exploited, and their image

trivialized and sentimentalized. Much of the response to this

comprehensive naming of social injustice with respect to women has been

to deny that any injustice is involved, to deny that the issue of gender

is in any way problematic: men are men, women are women, and that's

that. The basis of such denial of the problematic nature of gender is

usually that male and female are seen as fundamental, natural,

self-evident categories (for some, they have the even greater force of

being regarded as God-given categories), whose naturalness and

obviousness depends on seeing the social category of gender as deriving

automatically and exclusively from the biological category of sex...

There is no doubt that the biological difference between male and female

is of considerable importance in human societies. It seems equally

beyond doubt that what is regarded as appropriate behavior for males and

females, other than that directly consequent on those biological

differences differ widely from one society to another. It is also

readily observable that even where social expectations are strong and

explicit, some variability in the behavior of males and females does

occur: many will conform to expected patterns of behavior, but some

 will not. All of this suggests that biological sex (identification as

female or male) needs to be distinguished from social gender

(identification as feminine or masculine), since the latter is not an

automatic consequence of the former. If gender is a social creation,

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