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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCustoms and Traditions(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Customs and Traditions


There are many customs and traditions in England. And I would like

to tell you some of them. First tradition is called "Wrong side of the

bed" When people are bad tempered we say that they must have got out

of bed on the wrong side. Originally, it was meant quiet literally.

People belive that the way they rose in the morning affected their

behaivor throughout the day. The wrong side of the bed was the left

side. The left always having been linked with evil. Second custom

is called "Blowing out the candles" The custom of having candles on

birthday cakes goes back to the ancient Greeks. Worshippers of Artemis,

godess of the moon and hunting, used to place honey cakes on the

altars of her temples on her birthday. The cakes were round like the

full moon and lit with tapers. This custom was next recorded in the

middle ages when German peasants lit tapers on birthday cakes, the

number lit indicating the person's age, plus an extra one to

represent the light of life. From earliest days burning tapers had

been endoued with mystical significance and it was belived that when

blown out they had the power to grant a secret wish and ensure a happy

year ahead. And the last tradition I would like to tell you is called

"The 5th of November" On the 5th of November in almost every otwn and

village in England you will see fire burning, fireworks, cracking

and lighting up the sky. You will see too small groups of children

pulling round in a home made cart, a figure that looks something

like a man but consists of an old suit of clothes, stuffed with straw.

The children will sing:" Remember, remember the 5th of November; Gun

powder, treason and plot". And they will ask passers-by for "a penny

for the Guy" But the children with "the Guy" are not likely to know who

or what day they are celebrating. They have done this more or less

every 5th of November since 1605. At that time James the First was on

the throne. He was hated with many people especialy the Roman

catholics against whom many sever laws had been passed. A number of

catholics chief of whom was Robert Catesby determined to kill the King

and his ministers by blowing up the house of Parliament with gunpowder.

To help them in this they got Guy Fawker, a soldier of fortune,

who would do the actual work. The day fixed for attempt was the 5th

of November, the day on which the Parliament was to open. But one

of the consperators had several friends in the parliament and he

didn't want them to die. So he wrote a letter to Lord Monteagle

begging him to make some excuse to be absent from parliament if he

valued his life. Lord Monteagle took the letter hurrily to the King.

Guards were sent


at once to examine the cellars of the house of Parliament. And there

they found Guy Fawker about to fire a trail of gunpowder. He was

tortured and hanged, Catesby was killed, resisting arrest in his own

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