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НазваE-Commerce (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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1. What is E-Commerce? 

There exists no exact definition of e-commerce. Generally it is
described as any kind of business transaction where information is
exchanged electronically. 

To some people it means shopping at a website and buying products
online, to other people it means just designing a web page in a way to
increase the customers' interest. It does not necessarily describe a
process of ordering and paying online.

Electronic trading, in which a supplier provides goods or services to a
customer in return for payment is just one special case of electronic

Other equally valid examples include internal transactions within a
single company

or provision of information to an external organisation without any

E-commerce is concerned with attracting new customers and therefore it
involves advertising, public relations and collecting information for
and about customers. 

It's not enough to get an online order for a product, it's also
necessary to have this product and to deliver it to the customer. So
e-commerce includes, besides of interacting with customers
electronically, all the things a "normal" business would also need.

Categories of E-Commerce

There are 3 categories of e-commerce:

business-to-business (B2B)

business-to-consumer (B2C)



An example in the business-to-business category would be a company that

uses an electronic way for ordering from its suppliers, receiving
invoices and

making payments.

The business-to-consumer category means selling things to consumers via
Internet. It is the most well-known form of e-commerce. 

The business-to-administration category covers all transactions between
companies and government organisations.

The same category exists for consumers and administration, though it is
rather seldom.

As the B2C category is the most popular one, we will talk about it.

Advantages of E-Commerce

The following list describes of what may be the main advantages of

lower transaction costs (if an e-commerce site is organised well, you
won't even need any office equipment  – however, it is rather seldom)

availability (people from everywhere and at any time of the day can
visit your site, get information and put orders)

large quantity of information (a company can build a very large
catalogue with a lot of information on the web – just think of Amazon
with it's 3 Mio. articles)

providing "up-to-date" information (you can update your site quickly and
make important information available in time)

comparing prices and products

quickness (the customers' orders and enquiries can be handled

Disadvantages of E-Commerce

There are a lot of hard aspects about e-commerce as the recent failures
in this branche show:

making people to visit your site (getting traffic to come to your web

how do you make yourself different from a (large) competition 

getting people to buy something at your site (people usually feel VERY
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