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НазваE-Commerce (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:




1. What is E-Commerce?


There exists no exact definition of e-commerce. Generally it is

described as any kind of business transaction where information is

exchanged electronically.


To some people it means shopping at a website and buying products

online, to other people it means just designing a web page in a way to

increase the customers' interest. It does not necessarily describe a

process of ordering and paying online.


Electronic trading, in which a supplier provides goods or services to a

customer in return for payment is just one special case of electronic



Other equally valid examples include internal transactions within a

single company


or provision of information to an external organisation without any



E-commerce is concerned with attracting new customers and therefore it

involves advertising, public relations and collecting information for

and about customers.


It's not enough to get an online order for a product, it's also

necessary to have this product and to deliver it to the customer. So

e-commerce includes, besides of interacting with customers

electronically, all the things a "normal" business would also need.


Categories of E-Commerce


There are 3 categories of e-commerce:


business-to-business (B2B)


business-to-consumer (B2C)






An example in the business-to-business category would be a company that


uses an electronic way for ordering from its suppliers, receiving

invoices and


making payments.


The business-to-consumer category means selling things to consumers via

Internet. It is the most well-known form of e-commerce.


The business-to-administration category covers all transactions between

companies and government organisations.


The same category exists for consumers and administration, though it is

rather seldom.


As the B2C category is the most popular one, we will talk about it.


Advantages of E-Commerce


The following list describes of what may be the main advantages of



lower transaction costs (if an e-commerce site is organised well, you

won't even need any office equipment – however, it is rather seldom)


availability (people from everywhere and at any time of the day can

visit your site, get information and put orders)


large quantity of information (a company can build a very large

catalogue with a lot of information on the web – just think of Amazon

with it's 3 Mio. articles)


providing "up-to-date" information (you can update your site quickly and

make important information available in time)


comparing prices and products


quickness (the customers' orders and enquiries can be handled



Disadvantages of E-Commerce


There are a lot of hard aspects about e-commerce as the recent failures

in this branche show:


making people to visit your site (getting traffic to come to your web



how do you make yourself different from a (large) competition


getting people to buy something at your site (people usually feel VERY

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