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НазваEuropean integration (реферат)
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на тему:

European Integration

The Dutch have the reputation of being enthusiastic subscribers to the
ideal of an integrated Europe. The practice of European integration,
however, is not always as wholeheartedly embraced: the Netherlands has
been one of the slowest member states in implementing measures under the
single market. But Europe is not an issue on the political agenda: no
major political party questions EC membership, and surveys consistently
show higher than average popular support for European unification in the
Netherlands. From the Dutch point of view the EC has fulfilled its two
main promises. It has been almost too successful in cementing Germany
not only militarily (through NATO) but also economically into Western
alliances, and the Dutch are now wary of a French—German directorate
within the Community. The second promise, of fostering Dutch economic
growth by demolishing obstacles to trade (two-thirds of Dutch industrial
exports is to other member states), has also been a success, and the
Netherlands has, until 1992, always been a net earner from the EC.

Interestingly enough, the Dutch had to overcome initial hesitations
before developing their pro-Europe attitude. When the European Coal and
Steel Community was set up, the Dutch objected to a supranational
authority, whereas supranationality was later to become one of the
characteristic Dutch desires in Brussels. Another source of hesitation
was even more curious: fear (by all major parties except the KVP), of a
papist Europe. This fear even had an impact on the composition of the
1952-6 Cabinet. In Chapter 2 we noted that in 1952 the portfolio of
Foreign Affairs fell to the KVP, but that the other parties balked at
the prospect of all the Foreign Secretaries in the EC being Catholics.
As a compromise a non-partisan Minister of Foreign Affairs, the banker
Beyen, was appointed, in addition to whom the Catholic diplomat Joseph
Luns became minister without portfolio, with the right to call himself
Foreign Secretary when abroad. When asked why the Netherlands had two
Ministers of Foreign Affairs, his stock reply was that, the Netherlands
being such a small country, the rest of the world was too large an area
to be covered by just one minister. Ironically, it was the Catholic Luns
who turned out to be a staunch Atlanticist, and it was Beyen who became
one of the founding fathers of the Community. The latter succeeded,
together with Belgium's Foreign Secretary, Spaak, in laying the
foundations of the EC Treaty after attempts at a European Defence
Community and a European Political Community had foundered in 1954.

Once these initial hesitations were overcome, two important obstacles to
European integration remained: a fear of domination by one or more of
the larger member states, and an emphasis on Atlantic cooperation in the
areas of defence and foreign policy. Because of these reservations it
has been argued that the Dutch Foreign Office sought to model 'Europe as
a greater Holland'. The fear of a directorate of larger countries,
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