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НазваFamoust scienist(текст)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Famoust Scientist


ALEC ISSIGONIS was born in 1906 in Izmir, Turkey. His mother was German

and his father was Greek with British citizenship. Issigonis didn’t go

to school. He was taught by a private teacher at home. After the First

World War, the family moved to Britain, and Issigonis studied

engineering. He was already a good designer but he couldn’t do math’s.

He failed his math’s exam three times at technical college! He worked

for a number of car manufacturers before joining Morris in 1936. After

the Second World War he design the Morris Minor, the first British car

to sell over a million. In 1956 he joined the British Motor Corporation.

In that year the Suez Crisis caused petrol shortages in Europe, so

everyone wanted cars that did not use much petrol. Issigonis was asked

to design a small economical car that could take four passengers. The

result was the Mini. Issigonis had complete control over the design of

the Mini. He was an arrogant man who did not like to listen to other

people. For example, he was told that all modern cars should have radios

and seat belts. But he did not listen to the radio himself or wear seat

belts, so he refused to put them in the first Minis. Later he changed

his mind and seat belts and radios were added. He saw himself as an

artist rather than a scientist. He once said, ‘Mathematics is the enemy

of every truly creative man.’ Issigonis always followed his instincts.

Luckily, they were usually right!About MINI. First of all he decided

that the Mini should be three meters long, half a meter shorter than

most small cars. Next, the wheels were made much smaller, with

independent suspension. And they were put right at the four corners of

the car. Then, the engine was turned sideways, and the gearbox was put

underneath. Most space was saved by having front-wheel drive. And there

was still room for four passengers. In 1959 this design was

revolutionary. Today nearly every small car is based on the design of

Mini. Henry Ford (1863-1947) Henry Ford was born in 1863. He was a man

who transformed the world. The car he built changed the lives of people

everywhere. In 1896, Ford succeeded in building an automobile powered by

a gasoline engine. He built this engine in his kitchen sink. In 1903,

Henry Ford established the Ford Motor Company and introduced the Model T

Ford. Henry Ford wanted to make a car that everyone would be able to

afford. He was able to lower the price of the Model T from $850 to $360

by introducing mass production assembly line techniques. On an assembly

line each person has one specific job and can do it faster and more