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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваIberian Britain. Celtic tribes. Roman Britain. Roman Conquest (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Iberian Britain.


Celtic tribes.


Roman Britain.


Roman Conquest


As far as historical research could establish, the first inhabitants of

the British Isles were nomadic Stone Age hunters. They probably lived in

the dry caves of the limestone and chalk hills. The palaeolithic

population, unable with their rude stone tools to cope with the

impassable woods and wild tangled bush growth that covered nearly the

whole of the land, had to rely entirely on the bounty of nature. They

must have lived on what the woods, the ocean and the rivers had to

offer. When they finally passed over to agriculture the first farmers

had to cultivate some arable patches on the slopes of downs converging

on Salisbury plain. Historians refer to the original population as the

Scots and Picts with whom newcomers started merging. It was the

geographical position of the land that attracted the newcomers: the way

of Mediterranean civilization across the North Sea to Scandinavia, rich

in trade amber, lay straight from the Iberian peninsula between what

later came to be Ireland and Britain. Those newcomers must have been a

Mediterranean people. Their burial places in Cornwall, in Ireland, in

the coastal regions of Wales and Scotland are found to be either long

barrows, that is, man-made hills, or huge mounds covering hut-like

structures of stone slabs.


Thus one is led to think of them as of very numerous and rather well

organized people: tools more sophisticated than stone spades and

mattocks do not seem to have been found in the archaeological

excavations, so the newcomers must have been very good farmers to be

able to feed a huge crowd of stone-hewers engaged in all those

giant-like feats with only that primitive equipment at their disposal.


Among the suppositions made by historians and archaeologists about the

Late Stone Age population of Britain, those of special interest to us

concern the time (the time is usually given as around 2,400 B.C.) and

the reasons of their migration to the British Isles from the

Mediterranean areas, their territorial distribution there, the nature-of

their civilization.


These people are thought to have settled on the chalk hills of the

Cots-wolds, the Sussex and Dorset downs and the Chilterns. They were

joined after a few centuries by some similar southern people who settled

along the whole of the western coast, so that the modern inhabitants of

Western England and Wales and Ireland have good archaeological reasons

to claim them for their forefathers.


Their civilization as the monuments show was quite advanced, and the

splendour of their burial arrangements can be taken as a sign of class

differentiation. An Alpine race came to subdue them, however, about 1700

B.C. from the east and south-east, from the Rhineland and Holland.

Historians refer to these later immigrants who settled in the east,

south east and up the Thames Valley, as "the Beaker Folk" for they left

a characteristic relic of their civilization, an earthenware drinking

vessel called "beaker".

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