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full name State of Idaho

 

POSTAL ABBREVIATION ID

 

inhabitant Idahoan

 

ADMITTED TO THE UNION July 3, 1890.

 

Rank 43rd

 

capital city Boise, the largest city in the state, located on the Boise

River in southwestern Idaho; population 125,738. Originally an army

camp, it was founded as a settlement in 1863 and was incorporated as a

city the following year, when it also became the territorial capital.

 

state name and nicknames The name "Idaho" is an artificial Indian word

invented by George M. Willing. Also known as the Gem State and the Gem

of the Mountains (the putative meaning of "Idaho").

 

state seal In the center is a shield showing a landscape, with the Snake

River, mountains, a fir tree, and a farmer at the plow. Above the shield

is an elk's head and the

 

state motto on a scroll; below it is a sheaf of wheat; to the right is a

miner; to the left a woman holding symbols of justice and liberty. Along

the bottom are agricultural symbols, including two cornucopias, the

state flower, and ripened wheat. The yellow border reads "Great Seal of

the State of Idaho."

 

The western state of Idaho belongs to the Mountain states. It is

bordered on the north by Canada, on the east by Montana and Wyoming, on

the south by Nevada and Utah, and on the west by Oregon, Washington, and

the Snake River. It ranks 42nd in population and 14th in area among the

states.

 

motto Esto Perpetua (It Is Forever)

 

song "Here We Have Idaho," lyrics by McKinley Helm and Albert J.

Tompkins, music by Sallie Hume Douglas.

 

SYMBOLS

 

Flower syringa Tree white pine Bird mountain bluebird Gem star garnet

Horse Appaloosa flag A blue field with the state seal in the center and

below it a red band bearing the legend "State of Idaho."

 

As a Rocky Mountain state, Idaho is dominated by mountain terrain, with

the Continental Divide forming Idaho's eastern border. The state

contains some of the largest stretches of unspoiled wilderness in the

continental U.S., with a wide diversity of flora and game. Idaho also

boasts more than 2,000 lakes and ten major rivers. Heavily irrigated

farmland lines the Snake River valley, the state's major drainage;

Hell's Canyon, along the western Snake River, is the deepest gorge—about

one mile in depth—in North America.

 

elevations Highest point-. Borah Peak, Cus-

 

ter County, 12,662 feet. Lowest point. Snake River, Nez Perce County,

710 feet. Mean elevation: 5,000 feet

 

major rivers Snake, Salmon, Clearwater

 

major lakes Pend Oreille, Coeur d'Alene, Priest, Bear, American Falls,

Cascade, and Dworshak

 

temperatures (1990) The highest recorded temperature was 118°F on July

28, 1934, at Orotino. The lowest was —60°F on January 18, 1943, at

Island Park Dam.

 

IDAHO IN HISTORY

 

1805 A U.S. expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

crosses what is now the Idaho panhandle en route to the Pacific coast.

 

1809 David Thompson of the North West Company establishes a trading

post on the eastern shore

 

of Lake Pend Oreille.

 

1810 Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company establishes a camp on

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