full name State of Idaho
POSTAL ABBREVIATION ID
ADMITTED TO THE UNION July 3, 1890.
capital city Boise, the largest city in the state, located on the Boise
River in southwestern Idaho; population 125,738. Originally an army
camp, it was founded as a settlement in 1863 and was incorporated as a
city the following year, when it also became the territorial capital.
state name and nicknames The name "Idaho" is an artificial Indian word
invented by George M. Willing. Also known as the Gem State and the Gem
of the Mountains (the putative meaning of "Idaho").
state seal In the center is a shield showing a landscape, with the Snake
River, mountains, a fir tree, and a farmer at the plow. Above the shield
is an elk's head and the
state motto on a scroll; below it is a sheaf of wheat; to the right is a
miner; to the left a woman holding symbols of justice and liberty. Along
the bottom are agricultural symbols, including two cornucopias, the
state flower, and ripened wheat. The yellow border reads "Great Seal of
the State of Idaho."
The western state of Idaho belongs to the Mountain states. It is
bordered on the north by Canada, on the east by Montana and Wyoming, on
the south by Nevada and Utah, and on the west by Oregon, Washington, and
the Snake River. It ranks 42nd in population and 14th in area among the
motto Esto Perpetua (It Is Forever)
song "Here We Have Idaho," lyrics by McKinley Helm and Albert J.
Tompkins, music by Sallie Hume Douglas.
Flower syringa Tree white pine Bird mountain bluebird Gem star garnet
Horse Appaloosa flag A blue field with the state seal in the center and
below it a red band bearing the legend "State of Idaho."
As a Rocky Mountain state, Idaho is dominated by mountain terrain, with
the Continental Divide forming Idaho's eastern border. The state
contains some of the largest stretches of unspoiled wilderness in the
continental U.S., with a wide diversity of flora and game. Idaho also
boasts more than 2,000 lakes and ten major rivers. Heavily irrigated
farmland lines the Snake River valley, the state's major drainage;
Hell's Canyon, along the western Snake River, is the deepest gorge—about
one mile in depth—in North America.
elevations Highest point-. Borah Peak, Cus-
ter County, 12,662 feet. Lowest point. Snake River, Nez Perce County,
710 feet. Mean elevation: 5,000 feet
major rivers Snake, Salmon, Clearwater
major lakes Pend Oreille, Coeur d'Alene, Priest, Bear, American Falls,
Cascade, and Dworshak
temperatures (1990) The highest recorded temperature was 118°F on July
28, 1934, at Orotino. The lowest was —60°F on January 18, 1943, at
Island Park Dam.
IDAHO IN HISTORY
1805 A U.S. expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
crosses what is now the Idaho panhandle en route to the Pacific coast.
1809 David Thompson of the North West Company establishes a trading
post on the eastern shore
of Lake Pend Oreille.
1810 Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company establishes a camp on
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