найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваIlya Ivanovich Mashkov(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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. . . These fruits, loaves and meat are depicted with a skill almost

comparable to that displaced by the masters of the Dutch still life in

their achievements hitherto unsurpassed. Mashkov's canvases are not only

truthful to the point of illusion but are possessed of a rare beauty and

radiance. His use of colour resembles the swelling chords of an organ.


A. Lunacharsky


THE NAME OF ILYA IVANOVICH MASHKOV is associated above all with

still-life paintings remarkable for an elemental intensity of colour

which verges at times on the violent. Displaying a scope and boldness

unusual in his contemporaries as well as an acute feeling for the

materiality of things, Mashkov's bright canvases are striking for the

breadth of their pictorial range, for the deep sonority of their



Mashkov was one of the boldest innovators in Russian painting at the

beginning of the twentieth century, an outstanding painter whose works

contributed to the development of Soviet art, an experienced teacher who

passed on his skill to many who would later become famous artists. Each

of these aspects of his creative activity is instructive and deserving

of special attention. Mashkov developed as a painter in the years

preceding the Revolution, at a time when artistic life in Russia was

unusually complex and full of contradiction. In the field of art there

were clashes between various principles and ideas, manifested as a

struggle between numerous schools. Painters of an older generation, —

members of the Society for Circulating Art Exhibitions (the

Peredvizhniki), the World of Art and the Union of Russian Artists, —

were still active. At the same time a host of aesthetic and artistic

conceptions, precarious in their theoretical foundation, were receiving

wide attention. The overthrow of traditional forms, aesthetic nihilism,

the loss of firm links with reality could not, however, delay the

development of art. The search for new paths and new creative principles

went on, and Russian art was enriched by some remarkable achievements.

Just in this period there appeared a number of talented young artists.


Despite the diversity of the new ideas and trends, one may clearly

discern in Russian painting of this time a general tendency towards the

perfecting of artistic form. Artists were striving for a certain

synthesis, they wished to reveal the generalized meaning of phenomena

not susceptible of concretization in time, and therefore not

infrequently they refused to represent movement and action in their

work. As a result of this loss of interest in the subject painting, the

still life became the dominant genre. Landscape and portrait also

occupied an important place. And particular attention was paid to the

renewal of painterly techniques.


The evolving of a new system of pictorial representation advanced

through a series of agonizing explorations, which were often far from

successful. The principle of verisimilitude, which had prevailed in

nineteenth century painting, was supplanted by that of conventionality.

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