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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваIlya Ivanovich Mashkov(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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. . . These fruits, loaves and meat are depicted with a skill almost
comparable to that displaced by the masters of the Dutch still life in
their achievements hitherto unsurpassed. Mashkov's canvases are not only
truthful to the point of illusion but are possessed of a rare beauty and
radiance. His use of colour resembles the swelling chords of an organ.

A. Lunacharsky

THE NAME OF ILYA IVANOVICH MASHKOV is associated above all with
still-life paintings remarkable for an elemental intensity of colour
which verges at times on the violent. Displaying a scope and boldness
unusual in his contemporaries as well as an acute feeling for the
materiality of things, Mashkov's bright canvases are striking for the
breadth of their pictorial range, for the deep sonority of their

Mashkov was one of the boldest innovators in Russian painting at the
beginning of the twentieth century, an outstanding painter whose works
contributed to the development of Soviet art, an experienced teacher who
passed on his skill to many who would later become famous artists. Each
of these aspects of his creative activity is instructive and deserving
of special attention. Mashkov developed as a painter in the years
preceding the Revolution, at a time when artistic life in Russia was
unusually complex and full of contradiction. In the field of art there
were clashes between various principles and ideas, manifested as a
struggle between numerous schools. Painters of an older generation, —
members of the Society for Circulating Art Exhibitions (the
Peredvizhniki), the World of Art and the Union of Russian Artists, —
were still active. At the same time a host of aesthetic and artistic
conceptions, precarious in their theoretical foundation, were receiving
wide attention. The overthrow of traditional forms, aesthetic nihilism,
the loss of firm links with reality could not, however, delay the
development of art. The search for new paths and new creative principles
went on, and Russian art was enriched by some remarkable achievements.
Just in this period there appeared a number of talented young artists.

Despite the diversity of the new ideas and trends, one may clearly
discern in Russian painting of this time a general tendency towards the
perfecting of artistic form. Artists were striving for a certain
synthesis, they wished to reveal the generalized meaning of phenomena
not susceptible of concretization in time, and therefore not
infrequently they refused to represent movement and action in their
work. As a result of this loss of interest in the subject painting, the
still life became the dominant genre. Landscape and portrait also
occupied an important place. And particular attention was paid to the
renewal of painterly techniques. 

The evolving of a new system of pictorial representation advanced
through a series of agonizing explorations, which were often far from
successful. The principle of verisimilitude, which had prevailed in
nineteenth century painting, was supplanted by that of conventionality.
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