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Lexical stylistic Devices()
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lexical stylistic devices

 

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Introduction

 

Lexical stylistic devices

 

Metaphor

 

Metonymy

 

Pun, zeugma, semantically false chains,

 

nonsense of non-sequence

 

Irony

 

Antonomasia

 

Epithet

 

Hyperbole and understatement

 

Oxymoron

 

Introduction

 

Lexical stylistic device is such type of denoting phenomena that serves

to create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. In

fact we deal with the intended substitution of the existing names

approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries, prompted by the

speakers subjective original view and evaluation of things. Each type

of intended substitution results in a stylistic device called also a

trope.

 

This act of substitution is referred to transference the name of one

object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of

shape, color, function, etc.) or closeness (of material existence,

cause/effect, instrument/result, part/whole relations, etc.).

 

Lexical stylistic devices

 

Metaphor

 

The most frequently used, well known and elaborated among lexical

stylistic devices is a metaphor transference of names based on the

associated likeness between two objects, as in the pancake, ball for

the sky or silver dust, sequins for stars. So there exist a

similarity based on one or more common semantic component. And the wider

is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and

unexpected the more expressive is the metaphor.

 

If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects,

we deal with personification, as in the face of London or the pain of

the ocean.

 

Metaphor, as all other lexical stylistic devices, is fresh, original,

genuine when first used, and trite, hackneyed, stale when often

repeated. In the latter case it gradually loses its expressiveness.

 

Metaphor can be expressed by all notional parts of speech. Metaphor

functions in the sentence as any of its members.

 

When the speaker (writer) in his desire to present an elaborated image

does not limit its creation to a single metaphor but offers a group of

them, this cluster is called sustained (prolonged) metaphor.

 

Metonymy

 

Another lexical stylistic device metonymy is created by a different

semantic process. It is based on contiguity (nearness) of objects.

Transference of names in metonymy does not involve a necessity for two

different words to have a common component in their semantic structures

as is the case with metaphor but proceeds from the fact that two objects

(phenomena) have common grounds of existence in reality. Such words as

cup and tea have no semantic nearness, but the first one may serve

the container of the second, hence the conversational cliche Will you

have another cup?.

 

Metonymy as all other lexical stylistic devices loses its originality

due to long use.

 

The scope of transference in metonymy is much more limited than that of

metaphor, which is quite understandable: the scope of human imagination

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