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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMoscow (тема)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial

and cultural centre.


It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1147.

Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century

Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the

liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the

Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter

the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg Moscow remained the heart

of Russia. That's why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack.

After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.


Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in the Europe. It stands on the

bank of the Moskva-River. More than 10 million people live in the city.

Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments that

were built by outstanding architects and sculptors.


Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The historical

centre of Moscow is Red Square. The best starting point of the tour

around the city is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square

in Moscow. It is the place of parades, meeting and demonstrations. Here

one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, or St. Basil’s

cathedral, erected to commemorate Russia’s conquest of the Kazan Kingdom

in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can see

the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in memory of the Russian victory

over the Polish invaders. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin, a

wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 magnificent cathedrals, the Bell

Tower of Ivan the Great palaces, fortress walls and 20 towers. The most

famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big clock. On the

territory of the Kremlin you can see the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell,

the biggest cannon and bell in the world.The Kremlin with golden domes

and tower makes a strong impression on tourists. The Alexander Garden

with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is the place of memory. One of the

well-known Kremlin museums is the Armoury Chamber. The famous golden cap

of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine the Second

and many other historical items are exhibited there.


Some skyscrapers decorate Moscow including Moscow University, a palace

of knowledge and students. Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre

where there are a lot of institutes, universities, libraries, museums.

The city leads a varied cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs,

concert halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the

Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov

Theatre. The magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in

Theatre Square in Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin.

This is the leading Russian opera house with the best

vocalists and choreographers in it's company.


People of Moscow are proud of their museums : the Tretyakov Gallery,

Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, literary museums. The State Tretyakov

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