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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMuseums and art galleries(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


Museums and art galleries.


Millions people al over the world spend their holidays visiting

museums and art galleries. They visit them to see new things, to know

more about other countries, their traditions, about history and even

future of the mankind. There are different type of museums : historical,

military The Tower of London is a historical museum. It is the oldest

palace, fortress and prison in Europe. It’s also one of the most popular

museums nowadays. The great central tower, the White tower was built

around 1090 by William the Conqueror on the site of a Roman fort built

there more than 1000 years earlier. Massive defensive walls and other

towers were added later. Through the centuries, the Tower of London has

been a citadel, a palace, a prison for offenders against the State, the

home of the Mint, the treasury for the Crown Jewels, a menagerie, and

the first Royal observatory. Three queens of England have been beheaded

within its walls. The Tower’s guardians are the Yeomen Warders who wear

splendid scarlet and gold uniforms dating back to Henry VII’s time.

Sir Hans Sloane was a great collector. He filled his house with rare

books and pictures, precious stones, stuffed animals, birds and

butterflies, and ancient remains from all over the world. There had

never been a collection quite like it , and visitors were amazed by what

they saw. When Sir Hans Sloane died in 1753, his wife let the King buy

the whole collection for just 20 000 pounds so that it could belong to

the nation for ever. This was the start of the British Museums. It took

thirty years and thousands of tons of stone to complete the building and

the forty-four massive columns which decorated the front. The building

of the British Museums was finished in 1948. The state Tretyakov

Gallery is one of the best-known picture galleries in the world. It

takes its name from its founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant and

art connoisseur. In the mid-19th century, Tretyakov began to collect

Russian paintings. He visited all the exhibitions and art studios and

bought the best pictures of contemporary artists. Little by little

Tretyakov extended his range of interest and began to collect earlier

Russian paintings. More than once he had to add wings to his house,

because his collection grew larger and larger. In 1881 Pavel Tretyakov

opened his collection to the public. 11 years later he donated it to the

city of Moscow. Since then the gallery has received hundreds of pictures

from other museums and private collection. Today the Tretyakov gallery

is not only Russia’s biggest and most important museums of Russian art,

it is also a research, cultural and educational center.