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НазваPolitic of USA (реферат)
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РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Politic of USA

 

INRODUCTION

 

A great many changes took place in the Americas from 1800 to 1870. The

United States more than doubled in size, and its government was set on a

firm base. This allowed the country to become strong. Latin America, or

Central and South America, won independence from European rule. But

traditions established under colonial rule remained strong. So despite

strong efforts, democracy did not develop. In all, the 70-year period

was a time of both great promise and great hardship.

 

A strong spirit of reform swept through the United States during the

late 1800's and early 1900's. Many Americans called for changes in the

country's economic, political, and social systems. They wanted to reduce

poverty, improve the living conditions of the poor, and regulate big

business. They worked to end corruption in goverment, make government

more responsive to the people, and accomplish other goals.

 

During the 1870's and 1880's, the reformers made relatively little

progress. But after 1890, they gained much public support and influence

in government. By 1917, the reformers had brought about many changes.

Some reformers called themselves progressives. As a result, the period

of American history from about 1890 to about 1917 is often called the

Progressive Era.

 

 

During the Expansion Era, many Americans came to believe that social

reforms were needed to improve their society. Churches and social groups

set up charities the poor and teach them how to help themselves

Reformers worked to reduce the working day of laborers from the usual 12

or 14 hours to 10 hours.

 

Prohibitionists — convinced that drunkenness was the chief cause of

poverty and other problems — persuaded 13 states to outlaw the sale of

alcohol between 1846 and 1855. Dorothea Dix and others worked to improve

the dismal conditions in the nation's prisons and insane asylums. Other

important targets of reformers were women's rights, improvements in

education, and the abolition of slavery.

 

The drive for women's rights. Early American women had few rights. There

were almost no colleges for women, and most professional careers were

closed to them. A married woman could not own property. Instead, any

property she had legally belonged to her husband. In addition, American

women were barred from voting in almost all elections.

 

A women's rights movement developed after 1820, and brought about some

changes. In 1833, the Oberlin Collegiate Institute (now Oberlin College)

opened as the first coeducational college in the United States. Some

men's colleges soon began admitting women, and new colleges for women

were built. In 1848, New York passed a law allowing women to keep

control of their own real estate and personal property after marriage.

That same year, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stan-ton organized a

Woman's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y. The convention issued

the first formal appeal for woman suffrage (the right to vote). But

nationwide suffrage did not come about until 1920.

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