найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPricing (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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In the market economy the business success of any company or
entrepreneur mostly depends on the correctly chosen strategy and tactics
of pricing on goods and services. Pricing is a rather difficult process
because prices mostly depend on the situation in the market. The range
of political, economic, psychological and social factors has a great
influence on the price level. Today your price can be determined by the
costs factor, and tomorrow its level will depend on the customer’s

However, nowadays the most part of entrepreneurs of our country has no
necessary theoretical and practical knowledge of the complicated
mechanism of goods and services pricing. As a result, establishing
prices they often make serious mistakes that immediately reflects on the
financial results, in some cases leads to suffering losses and sometimes
even to the bankruptcy of a business (company).

To avoid this situation any economist and any entrepreneur must acquire
the theory and practice of pricing.  

          All commercial and nonprofit organizations face the problem of
determining prices for their goods and services. In the market economy
pricing is a very difficult process which is influenced by plenty of
different factors and based not only on the marketing recommendations.
But nevertheless, the right choice of price strategy, approaches to the
pricing for new and still manufactured goods and services in order to
increase volumes of realization and commodity circulation, to enlarge
production and firm the company’s positions in the market is one of the
marketing functions. 

Prices and the price policy are ones of the major components of the
marketing activity, which importance is permanently rising in our days.
Prices are in close dependence on other variables of the marketing and
other firm’s activities. Final commercial results mostly depends on
prices and it’s important to mention that in the long run correct or
fault price policy brings positive or negative results of firm’s

The essence of the correctly chosen price policy in the marketing is to
fix and vary prices in dependence on a situation in the market in order
to win a certain market share, provide the planed profits and solve
other strategic and operative tasks. Working out the general price
policy all decisions are gathered into an integrated system.   

Stating a single price for all buyers is a comparatively new idea. It
has been formed historically – a price was a result of the deal between
a buyer and a seller. Usually sellers asked for a price higher than they
counted to get first. In their turn buyers asked for a price lower than
they were ready to pay. While dealing with each other they usually came
to the price that was mutually acceptable to everyone. Common prices
were widely admitted only to the end of 19 century with the appearance
of large retail enterprises, which proclaimed “the strict policy of
common prices” as they offered a huge variety of goods and employed a
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