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НазваRembrandt (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Rembrandt was a Dutch baroque artist who ranks as one of the greatest
painters in the history of Western art. His full name was Rembrandt
Harmenszoon van Rijn, and he possessed a profound understanding of human
nature that was matched by a brilliant technique- not only in painting
but in drawing and etching- and his work made an enormous impact on his
contemporaries and influenced the style of many later artists. Perhaps
no painter has ever equaled Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects or his bold


  	Born in Leiden on July 15, 1606, Rembrandt was the son of a miller.
Despite the fact that he came from a family of relatively modest means,
his parents took great care with his education. Rembrandt began his
studies at the Latin School, and at the age of 14 he was enrolled at the
University of Leiden. The program did not interest him, and he soon left
to study art-first with a local master, Jacob van Swanenburch, and then,
in Amsterdam, with Pieter Lastman, known for his historical paintings.
After six months, having mastered everything he had been taught,
Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he was soon so highly regarded that
although barely 22 years old, he took his first pupils, among them
Gerrit Dou. 

Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1631; his marriage in 1634 to Saskia van
Uylenburgh, the cousin of a successful art dealer, enhanced his career,
bringing him in contact with wealthy patrons who eagerly commissioned
portraits. An exceptionally fine example from this period is the
Portrait of Nicolaes Ruts (1631, Frick Collection, New York City). In
addition, Rembrandt's mythological and religious works were much in
demand, and he painted numerous dramatic masterpieces such as The
Blinding of Samson (1636, Stдdelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt). Because
of his renown as a teacher, his studio was filled with pupils, some of
whom (such as Carel Fabritius) were already trained artists. In the 20th
century, scholars have reattributed a number of his paintings to his
associates; attributing and identifying Rembrandt's works is an active
area of art scholarship. 

In contrast to his successful public career, however, Rembrandt's family
life was marked by misfortune. Between 1635 and 1641 Saskia gave birth
to four children, but only the last, Titus, survived; her own death came
in 1642. Hendrickje Stoffels, engaged as his housekeeper about 1649,
eventually became his common-law wife and was the model for many of his

Despite Rembrandt's financial success as an artist, teacher, and art
dealer, his penchant for ostentatious living forced him to declare
bankruptcy in 1656. An inventory of his collection of art and
antiquities, taken before an auction to pay his debts, showed the
breadth of Rembrandt's interests: ancient sculpture, Flemish and Italian
Renaissance paintings, Far Eastern art, contemporary Dutch works,
weapons, and armor. Unfortunately, the results of the auction-including
the sale of his house-were disappointing. 
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