Russia (My Motherland)
Russia was the largest Republic in the former USSR. But now it has
become an independent State.
It is situated in the Eastern part of Europe and in the Northern part
The country is washed by 12 seas of three oceans: the Pacific, the
Arctic and the Atlantic oceans. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents
Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.
The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental
in the central part of the country and subtropical in the South. Winters
are cold, windy and snowy, especially in the northern part of the
country. The coldest point of the northern hemisphere, where
temperatures are minus 70*C, is located in Siberia. Summers are hot and
dry, especially in the South region of the country, in such cities like
Sochi, Anapa and others. Autumn usually brings rains and fogs.
The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from
high peaked mountains to deep valleys. There are two great plains in
Russia: they are the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain.
There are some mountain chains. The biggest mountain chain, the Urals,
separates Europe from Asia. In Asian part of Russia we can find another
big mountain chain, the Altai. There are about 150 volcanoes in
Kamchatka Peninsula, 30 of which are active. One can find deserts in the
Far East, Arctic zones of tundra in the North. These territories are
inhabited by various animals, birds, insects. In the north of Russia
live the walrus, seal, white bear, polar fox and reindeer. In the forest
zone live the bear, wolf, fox, linx, sable, ermine, elk, roe, wild bear
and in the Far East the tiger and leopard. Among the trees growing in
the European part of Russia are birch, pine and oak: in Siberia – cedar,
larch and fir trees and in the Far East – iron and cork trees, lotus,
ginseng and lianas.
There are very many rivers in Russia, the longest of them are the
Volga in Europe and the Yenissei and the Ob in Asia. The world’s deepest
lake - Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 metres, is situated in
Russia, too. Its water is the purest in the world.
Russia borders on many countries: Norway and Finland in the
north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the west,
Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan, Mongolia,
China in the south
The capital of Russia is Moscow and it is also one of the main
political, scientific, industrial and cultural centres. It’s population
is about 10 million people. Other big cities are St. Petersburg,
Sverdlovsk, Samara, Omsk, Novosibirsk and many others.
Russia has population of about 150 million people of over a hundred
nationalities. Nearly one hundred languages are spoken in the country.
The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population
live in cities and towns and their outskirts.
Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian country. Its vast mineral
resources include oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, zinc, lead,
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