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НазваRudyard Kipling (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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(30 DECEMBER І865 – l8 JANUARY 1936)


Rudyard Kipling


From the 1890s to the 1920s the most popular writer in the

English-speaking world was Rudyard Kipling. In 1907 he received the

first Nobel Prize in literature given to an author writing in the

English language. He published hundreds of short stories and poems, four

novels, and volumes of pamphlets, speeches, and journalism.


The author loved children and enjoyed their company. The roots of

Kipling's alliance with children go back, to his own childhood.


Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born 30 December 1865 in Bombay, India. His

father was an educated man, who had come to India to teach art in

Bombay, where Kipling spent his early childhood. His first six years

were idyllic and stimulating. He had two Indian servants of his own, and

with them he spoke the vernacular Hindustani and he had to be reminded

to speak English to his parents. Then everything changed. When Rudyard

was three, Alice Kipling gave birth to a daughter, named after her

mother but called Trix, and in 1870 she gave birth to a second son who

died almost immediately. This event set the Kipling parents on a course

of action quite common among colonial families though disastrous for

their son and daughter.


To remove Rudyard and Trix from the Indian heat and diseases, they took

them back to England and placed them in the care of hired foster parents

whom they had found through a newspaper advertisement. Their

six-year-old son and a three-year-old daughter did not see them again

for over five years. Kipling never forgot the vulnerability of children.

In 1878 Kipling enrolled in the United Services College, where his

juvenilia was printed in school papers.


In 1882 Kipling started the working life for which his family close

friend Price and other masters at the college had tried to prepare him.

He arrived in Bombay on 18 October 1882 and joined his family in Lahore.

Rudyard Kipling owed his position of assistant editor to Price's and his

father's connections to one of the paper's ("Civil and Military

Gazette") owners; unfortunately, the difficulties of everyday life

included the absence of refrigeration and electric fans and throughout

his tenure in India, Kipling suffered from malaria and dysentery.

Kipling nevertheless worked long hours writing articles, acting,as



Kipling's literary career began in earnest in 1886 with the publication

of, “Departmental Ditties and Other Verses”, a collection of light and

satiric poems about Anglo-Indian careers and courtships. In 1888

appeared "Plain Tales from the Hills".


In 1892 appeared "Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses". His critical

reception was overwhelmingly positive, his reputation made, his success

assured — though Kipling never counted on any assurances "Up like a

rocket, down like the sticks was his motto. Soon Kipling got acquainted

with Wolcott Balestier, an American publisher's agent, who became

Kipling's closest inend As the two friends collaborated on a novel, The

Naulahka a Story of West and East (1892), Kipling fell in low with

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