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НазваRudyard Kipling (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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(30 DECEMBER І865 – l8 JANUARY 1936)

Rudyard Kipling

From the 1890s to the 1920s the most popular writer in the
English-speaking world was Rudyard Kipling. In 1907 he received the
first Nobel Prize in literature given to an author writing in the
English language. He published hundreds of short stories and poems, four
novels, and volumes of pamphlets, speeches, and journalism.

The author loved children and enjoyed their company. The roots of
Kipling's alliance with children go back, to his own childhood.

Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born 30 December 1865 in Bombay, India. His
father was an educated man, who had come to India to teach art in
Bombay, where Kipling spent his early childhood. His first six years
were idyllic and stimulating. He had two Indian servants of his own, and
with them he spoke the vernacular Hindustani and he had to be reminded
to speak English to his parents. Then everything changed. When Rudyard
was three, Alice Kipling gave birth to a daughter, named after her
mother but called Trix, and in 1870 she gave birth to a second son who
died almost immediately. This event set the Kipling parents on a course
of action quite common among colonial families though disastrous for
their son and daughter.

To remove Rudyard and Trix from the Indian heat and diseases, they took
them back to England and placed them in the care of hired foster parents
whom they had found through a newspaper advertisement. Their
six-year-old son and a three-year-old daughter did not see them again
for over five years. Kipling never forgot the vulnerability of children.
In 1878 Kipling enrolled in the United Services College, where his
juvenilia was printed in school papers.

In 1882 Kipling started the working life for which his family close
friend Price and other masters at the college had tried to prepare him.
He arrived in Bombay on 18 October 1882 and joined his family in Lahore.
Rudyard Kipling owed his position of assistant editor to Price's and his
father's connections to one of the paper's ("Civil and Military
Gazette") owners; unfortunately, the difficulties of everyday life
included the absence of refrigeration and electric fans and throughout
his tenure in India, Kipling suffered from malaria and dysentery.
Kipling nevertheless worked long hours writing articles, acting,as

Kipling's literary career began in earnest in 1886 with the publication
of, “Departmental Ditties and Other Verses”, a collection of light and
satiric poems about Anglo-Indian careers and courtships. In 1888
appeared "Plain Tales from the Hills".

In 1892 appeared "Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses". His critical
reception was overwhelmingly positive, his reputation made, his success
assured — though Kipling never counted on any assurances "Up like a
rocket, down like the sticks was his motto. Soon Kipling got acquainted
with Wolcott Balestier, an American publisher's agent, who became
Kipling's closest inend As the two friends collaborated on a novel, The
Naulahka a Story of West and East (1892), Kipling fell in low with
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