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Реферат на тему:

 

Saskatchewan

 

The Land

 

Located in the prairie region of Canada, Saskatchewan is bordered by

Manitoba, Alberta, the Northwest Territories and the United States, and

is the only Canadian province with entirely man-made boundaries. The

province is rectangular in shape and is 651 900 km2 in area. Half of it

consists of forests, one-third of cultivated lands, and one-eighth is

covered with water.

 

The northern zone rests on a formation of Precambrian rock

characteristic of the Canadian Shield. As a result, there are numerous

(over 100 000) lakes, rivers, bogs and rocky outcroppings.

 

The southern part of the province is relatively flat, with occasional

valleys created by erosion from the glacial era. This prairie zone is

where most of the people live.

 

Camel caravans might not seem out of place in certain parts of

Saskatchewan. Athabasca Provincial Park has sand dunes 30 metres high

and semi-arid vegetation. Nowhere else in the world are dunes found this

far north.

 

The name Saskatchewan comes from the Cree word "kisiskatchewanisipi,"

which means "swift-flowing river." The province has four major rivers:

the Assiniboine, the North Saskatchewan, the South Saskatchewan and the

Churchill.

 

The whole province enjoys a hot, dry summer but the town of Estevan is

the undisputed "sunshine capital" of Canada, enjoying 2 540 hours of

sunshine per year.

 

The History

 

The first European explorers and trappers to visit Saskatchewan found

established settlements of Aboriginal people. The Chipewyan Indians

lived in the north; the Assiniboine inhabited the eastern plains, while

the nomadic Blackfoot roamed the west. The territory of the Cree, who

were long-time residents of the north, also extended southward to the

plains.

 

The earliest explorer was Henry Kelsey, a Hudson's Bay Company agent,

who in about 1690 followed the Saskatchewan River to the southern plains

of Saskatchewan. On the heels of the trappers came fur-trading companies

and trading posts, which became the foundation of many present-day

settlements.

 

For 200 years, the Hudson's Bay Company owned and administered the vast

Northwest Territories. Realizing their agricultural potential and the

opportunities for colonization, the Government of Canada acquired the

Territories in 1870. After the Dominion Lands Act of 1872, which

encouraged homesteaders, and another Act to stimulate immigration, the

new railway began bringing settlers in to farm these rich lands.

 

In 1905, Saskatchewan separated from the Northwest Territories and was

established as a province. Regina became the provincial capital. The

years following were years of prosperity, until the 1929 economic crash,

combined with a decade of drought and bad harvests, brought the lean

years of the Great Depression to the province.

 

In 1944, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) became the first

socialist government elected in North America. Its leader, Tommy

Douglas, led the fight for public hospitalization and medicare, earning

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