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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваSpecial fields of psychology (курсова робота)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:






1. Introduction


2. Physiological psychology


3. Psychoanalysis


4. Behaviourism


5. Gestalt psychology


6 .Cognition


7. Tests and Measurements


8. Development psychology


9. Social psychology


10. Psychiatry and mental health


11. Forensic psychology and criminology


12. Psychology, religion and phenomenology


13. Parapsychology


Industrial Psychology






1. Introduction


Psychology, scientific study of behavior and experience—that is, the

study of how human beings and animals sense, think, learn, and know.

Modern psychology is devoted to collecting facts about behavior and

experience and systematically organizing such facts into psychological

theories. These theories aid in understanding and explaining people’s

behavior and sometimes in predicting and influencing their future



Psychology, historically, has been divided into many subfields of study;

these fields, however, are interrelated and frequently overlap.

Physiological psychologists, for instance, study the functioning of the

brain and the nervous system, and experimental psychologists devise

tests and conduct research to discover how people learn and remember.

Subfields of psychology may also be described in terms of areas of

application. Social psychologists, for example, are interested in the

ways in which people influence one another and the way they act in

groups. Industrial psychologists study the behavior of people at work

and the effects of the work environment. School psychologists help

students make educational and career decisions. Clinical psychologists

assist those who have problems in daily life or who are mentally ill.


History. The science of psychology developed from many diverse sources,

but its origins as a science may be traced to ancient Greece.


Philosophical Beginnings. Plato and Aristotle, as well as other Greek

philosophers, took up some of the basic questions of psychology that are

still under study: Are people born with certain skills, abilities, and

personality, or do all these develop as a result of experience? How do

people come to know the world? Are certain ideas and feelings innate, or

are they all learned?


Such questions were debated for many centuries, but the roots of modern

psychological theory are found in the 17th century in the works of the

French philosopher Ren Descartes and the British philosophers Thomas

Hobbes and John Locke. Descartes argued that the bodies of people are

like clockwork machines, but that their minds (or souls) are separate

and unique. He maintained that minds have certain inborn, or innate,

ideas and that these ideas are crucial in organizing people’s

experiencing of the world. Hobbes and Locke, on the other hand, stressed

the role of experience as the source of human knowledge. Locke believed

that all information about the physical world comes through the senses

and that all correct ideas can be traced to the sensory information on

which they are based.

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