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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTexas (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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A giant among states, vast Texas was once a sovereign nation. During

300 years of rule by Spain, it had sprawled like a sleeping giant, its

riches undeveloped and its colonization limited to a few missions,

supported by presidios (military posts). When Mexico became an

independent country in 1821, Texas became a Mexican state and new

settlers from the United States were welcomed. The large influx of

Anglo-American colonists and African American slaves led to skirmishes

with Mexican troops.


After a successful war of independence against Mexico, the Texans raised

the Lone Star flag over their own republic in 1836. This government was

officially recognized by the United States and by several European

countries. Then in 1845 Texas accepted annexation by the United States

and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state.


Texas is second only to Alaska in area. It covers more territory than

the total area of five Midwestern states--Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,

Wisconsin, and Michigan. There are 254 counties in Texas. Its largest

county, Brewster, is about as big as Connecticut and Rhode Island

combined. Its smallest, Rockwall, is only 147 square miles (381 square

kilometers) in area. For a time Texas had a peak mileage of more than

17,000 miles (27,358 kilometers) of main-track railroad, but the total

has been declining ever since the 1930s.


Cotton, first raised on the Blackland Prairies, has long been the most

important crop of Texas. Much of it is now grown on the Great Plains, an

achievement made possible by the discovery of a sandy, water-laden

subsoil beneath the area's dry surface. On the Rio Grande irrigation has

given rise to a great fruit-growing belt, while along the Nueces River

vegetable crops are harvested in an 11-month growing season. Texas leads

the nation in beef production, an industry that began to flourish in

1866, when cowboys first drove wild longhorns north to market. Today

scientifically bred cattle are raised on the plains.


"Black gold," or crude oil, was found in Texas in the 19th century, but

it was the discovery of the gigantic east Texas oil field in 1930 that

revolutionized the agrarian state. Although much of the wealth of modern

Texas stems from its widespread petroleum-bearing formations, industry

has become increasingly diversified since the end of World War II.


The name Texas comes from a Caddo Indian word meaning "friends" or

"allies." The Spanish explorers pronounced the word tejas and gave this

name to the area. The nickname Lone Star State comes from the single

star in the Texas flag, which was officially adopted by the Republic of

Texas in 1839. The Texas and Hawaii flags are the only state emblems

that originally flew over recognized independent countries.


Survey of the Lone Star State


Texas lies in the south-central region of the United States. Its

southwestern and southern boundary is formed by the Rio Grande. Across

the river are the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leуn, and

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