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НазваThe British Parliament (тема)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The British Parliament


The British Parliament is the oldest in the world. It originated in the

12th century as Witenagemot, the body of wise councellers whom the

King needed to consult pursuing his policy. The British Parliament

consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the

Queen as its head. The House of Commons plays the major role in

law-making. It consists of Members of Parliament (called MPs for

short). Each of them represents an area in England, Scotland,

Wales and Ireland. MPs are elected either at a general election or at a

by-election following the death or retirement. Parliamentary

elections are held every 5 years and it is the Prime Minister who

decides on the exact day of the election. The minimum voting age

is 18. And the voting is taken by secret ballot. The election campaign

lasts about 3 weeks, The British parliamentary system depends on

politicals parties. The party which wins the majority of seats forms

the goverment and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The

Prime Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his party to become the

cabinet of ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular

area in the goverment. The second largest party becomes the

official opposition with its own leader and "shadow cabinet". The

leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons.

The parliament and the monarch have different roles in the

goverment and they only meet together on symbolic occasions, such as

coronation of a new monarch or the opening of the parliament. In

reality, the House of Commons is the one of three which has true

power. The House of Commons is made up of six hundred and fifty

elected members, it is presided over by the speaker, a member

acceptable to the whole house. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one

side for the governing party and the other for the opposition. The

first 2 rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both

parties (called "front benches") The back benches belong to the

rank-and-life MPs. Each session of the House of


Commons lasts for 160-175 days. Parliament has intervals during his

work. MPs are paid for their parliamentary work and have to attend the

sittings. As mention above, the House of Commons plays the major role in

law making. The procedure is the following: a proposed law ("a bill")

has to go through three stages in order to become an act of

parliament, these are called "readings". The first reading is a

formality and is simply the publication of the proposal. The second

reading involves debate on the principles of the bill, it is examination

by parliamentary committy. And the third reading is a report stage,

when the work of the committy is


reported on to the house. This is usually the most important stage

in the process. When the bill passes through the House of Commons, it

is sent to the House of Lords for discussion, when the Lords agree

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