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НазваThe British Parliament (тема)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The British Parliament

The British Parliament is the oldest in the world. It  originated in the
12th century as Witenagemot, the body of  wise  councellers whom the
King needed to consult pursuing his policy. The  British Parliament
consists of the  House  of  Lords  and  the  House  of Commons and the
Queen as its head. The House of Commons plays the major role in
law-making. It consists of  Members  of  Parliament (called MPs for
short).  Each  of  them  represents  an  area  in England, Scotland,
Wales and Ireland. MPs are elected either at a general election or at  a
 by-election  following  the  death  or retirement. Parliamentary
elections are held every 5 years and it is the Prime Minister  who 
decides  on  the  exact  day  of  the election. The minimum voting age
is 18. And the voting  is  taken by secret ballot. The election campaign
lasts about 3 weeks,  The British parliamentary system depends on
politicals  parties.  The party which wins the majority of seats forms 
the  goverment  and its leader usually becomes Prime  Minister.  The 
Prime  Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his party  to  become  the 
cabinet  of ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular
area  in the goverment. The second  largest  party  becomes  the 
official opposition with its own leader and "shadow cabinet".  The 
leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House  of  Commons.
The parliament and  the  monarch  have  different  roles  in  the
goverment and they only meet together on symbolic occasions, such as
coronation of a new monarch or the opening of the  parliament. In
reality, the House of Commons is the one of  three  which  has true
power. The House of Commons is made up of  six  hundred  and fifty
elected members, it is presided  over  by  the  speaker,  a member
acceptable to the whole house. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one
side for the governing party  and  the  other  for  the opposition. The
first 2 rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both
parties (called "front benches") The back benches belong to the
rank-and-life MPs. Each session  of  the  House  of

Commons lasts for 160-175 days. Parliament has  intervals  during his
work. MPs are paid for their parliamentary work and  have  to attend the
sittings. As mention above, the House of Commons plays the major role in
law making. The procedure is the  following:  a proposed law ("a bill")
has to go through three stages  in  order to become an act of
parliament, these are called "readings".  The first reading is a
formality and is simply the publication of the proposal. The second
reading involves debate on the principles of the bill, it is examination
by parliamentary  committy.  And  the third reading is a report stage,
when the work of the committy is

reported on to the house. This  is  usually  the  most  important stage
in the process. When the bill passes through the  House  of Commons, it
is sent to the House of Lords  for  discussion,  when the Lords agree
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