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НазваThe British Parliament(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


"The British Parliament"


The British Parliament is the oldest in the world. It originated in the

12th century as Witenagemot, the body of wise cancellers whom the King

needed to consult pursuing his policy. The British Parliament consists

of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as

its head. The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making. It

consists of Members of Parliament (called MPs for short). Each of

them represents an area in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. MPs

are elected either at a general election or at a by-election

following the death or retirement. Parliamentary elections are held

every 5 years and it is the Prime Minister who decides on the exact

day of the election. The minimum voting age is 18. And the voting is

taken by secret ballot. The election campaign lasts about 3 weeks, The

British parliamentary system depends on politicals parties. The party

which wins the majority of seats forms the goverment and its leader

usually becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister


chooses about 20 MPs from his party to become the cabinet of

ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area in the

goverment. The second largest party becomes the official opposition

with its own leader and "shadow cabinet". The leader of the opposition

is a recognized post in the House of Commons.


The parliament and the monarch have different roles in the

goverment and hey only meet together on symbolic occasions, such as

coronation of a new monarch or the opening of the parliament. In

reality, the House of Commons is the one of three which has true

power. The House of Commons is made up of six hundred and fifty

elected members, it is presided over by the speaker, a


member acceptable to the whole house. MPs sit on two sides of the hall,

one side for the governing party and the other for the opposition.

The first 2 rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both

parties (called "front benches") The back benches belong to the

rank-and-life MPs. Each session of the House of Commons lasts for

160-175 days. Parliament has intervals during his work. MPs are paid

for their parliamentary work and have to attend the sittings. As

mention above, the House of Commons plays the major role in law making.

The procedure is the following: a proposed law ("a bill") has to go

through three stages in order to become an act of parliament, these

are called "readings". The


first reading is a formality and is simply the publication of the

proposal. The second reading involves debate on the principles of the

bill, it is examination by parliamentary committy. And the third

reading is a report stage, when the work of the committy is reported on

to the house. This is usually the most important


stage in the process. When the bill passes through the House of

Commons, it is sent to the House of Lords for discussion, when the

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