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НазваThe British Parliament(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

"The British Parliament"

The British Parliament is the oldest in the world. It originated in the
12th century as Witenagemot, the body of  wise  cancellers whom the King
needed to consult pursuing his policy. The British Parliament consists
of the House  of  Lords  and  the  House  of Commons and the Queen as
its head. The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making. It
consists of  Members  of  Parliament (called MPs for short).  Each  of 
them  represents  an  area  in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. MPs
are elected either at a general election or at  a  by-election 
following  the  death  or retirement. Parliamentary elections are held
every 5 years and it is the Prime Minister  who  decides  on  the  exact
 day  of  the election. The minimum voting age is 18. And the voting  is
 taken by secret ballot. The election campaign lasts about 3 weeks,  The
British parliamentary system depends on politicals  parties.  The party
which wins the majority of seats forms  the  goverment  and its leader
usually becomes Prime  Minister.  The  Prime  Minister

chooses about 20 MPs from his party  to  become  the  cabinet  of
ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area  in the
goverment. The second  largest  party  becomes  the  official opposition
with its own leader and "shadow cabinet".  The  leader of the opposition
is a recognized post in the House  of  Commons.

The parliament and  the  monarch  have  different  roles  in  the
goverment and hey only meet together on symbolic occasions, such as
coronation of a new monarch or the opening of the  parliament. In
reality, the House of Commons is the one of  three  which  has true
power. The House of Commons is made up of  six  hundred  and fifty
elected members, it is presided  over  by  the  speaker,  a

member acceptable to the whole house. MPs sit on two sides of the hall,
one side for the governing party  and  the  other  for  the opposition.
The first 2 rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both
parties (called "front benches") The back benches belong to the
rank-and-life MPs. Each session  of  the  House  of Commons lasts for
160-175 days. Parliament has  intervals  during his work. MPs are paid
for their parliamentary work and  have  to attend the sittings. As
mention above, the House of Commons plays the major role in law making.
The procedure is the  following:  a proposed law ("a bill") has to go
through three stages  in  order to become an act of parliament, these
are called "readings".  The

first reading is a formality and is simply the publication of the
proposal. The second reading involves debate on the principles of the
bill, it is examination by parliamentary  committy.  And  the third
reading is a report stage, when the work of the committy is reported on
to the house. This  is  usually  the  most  important

stage in the process. When the bill passes through the  House  of
Commons, it is sent to the House of Lords  for  discussion,  when the
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