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НазваThe Comparative Analysis of thee History of the Computer Science and the Computer Engineering in the USA and Ukraine (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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на тему:


The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science


And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine.




Howard Aiken's contributions to the development of the computer -notably

the Harvard Mark I (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the Mark II -

are often excluded from the mainstream history of computers on two

technicalities. The first is that Mark I and Mark II were

electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the second one is that Aiken

was never convinced that computer programs should be treated as data in

what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the stored



?) as “Harvard architecture”, though, it should more properly be called

“Aiken architecture”. In this technology the program is fix and not

subject to any alteration save by intent - as in some computers used for

telephone switching and in ROM.





Aiken was a visionary, a man ahead of his times. Grace Hopper and others

remember his prediction in the late 1940s, even before the vacuum tube

had been wholly replaced by the transistor, that the time would come

when a machine even more powerful than the giant machines of those days

could be fitted into a space as small as a shoe box.


Some weeks before his death Aiken had made another prediction. He

pointed out that hardware considerations alone did not give a true

picture of computer costs. As hardware has become cheaper, software has

been apt to get more expensive. And then he gave us his final

prediction: “The time will come”, he said, “when manufacturers will gave

away hardware in order to sell software”. Time alone will tell whether

or not this was his final look ahead into the future.




In the early 1960s, when computers were hulking mainframes that took up

entire rooms, engineers were already toying with the then - extravagant

notion of building a computer intended for the sole use of one person.

by the early 1970s, researches at Xerox's Polo Alto Research Center

(Xerox PARC) had realized that the pace of improvement in the technology

of semiconductors - the chips of silicon that are the building blocks of

present-day electronics - meant that sooner or later the PC would be

extravagant no longer. They foresaw that computing power would someday

be so cheap that engineers would be able to afford to devote a great

deal of it simply to making non-technical people more comfortable with

these new information - handling tools. in their labs, they developed or

refined much of what constitutes PCs today, from “mouse” pointing

devices to software “windows”.


Although the work at Xerox PARC was crucial, it was not the spark that

took PCs out of the hands of experts and into the popular imagination.

That happened inauspiciously in January 1975, when the magazine Popular

Electronics put a new kit for hobbyists, called the Altair, on its

cover. for the first time, anybody with $400 and a soldering iron could

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