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НазваThe Comparative Analysis of thee History of the Computer Science and the Computer Engineering in the USA and Ukraine (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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на тему:


The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science


And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine.




Howard Aiken's contributions to the development of the computer -notably

the Harvard Mark I (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the Mark II -

are often excluded from the mainstream history of computers on two

technicalities. The first is that Mark I and Mark II were

electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the second one is that Aiken

was never convinced that computer programs should be treated as data in

what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the stored



It is not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the

stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether

the machines before the stored program were or were not “computers”.

This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to

machines. For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored

program, was officially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator

And Computer. But the first stored-program machine to be put into

regular operation was Maurice Wiles' EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage

Automatic Calculator. It seems to be rather senseless to deny many truly

significant innovations (by H.H.Aiken and by Eckert and Mauchly), which

played an important role in the history of computers, on the arbitrary

ground that they did not incorporate the stored-program concept.

Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significant that there is a

current computer technology that does not incorporate the stored

programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTS?) as

“Harvard architecture”, though, it should more properly be called “Aiken

architecture”. In this technology the program is fix and not subject to

any alteration save by intent - as in some computers used for telephone

switching and in ROM.





Aiken was a visionary, a man ahead of his times. Grace Hopper and others

remember his prediction in the late 1940s, even before the vacuum tube

had been wholly replaced by the transistor, that the time would come

when a machine even more powerful than the giant machines of those days

could be fitted into a space as small as a shoe box.


Some weeks before his death Aiken had made another prediction. He

pointed out that hardware considerations alone did not give a true

picture of computer costs. As hardware has become cheaper, software has

been apt to get more expensive. And then he gave us his final

prediction: “The time will come”, he said, “when manufacturers will gave

away hardware in order to sell software”. Time alone will tell whether

or not this was his final look ahead into the future.




In the early 1960s, when computers were hulking mainframes that took up

entire rooms, engineers were already toying with the then - extravagant

notion of building a computer intended for the sole use of one person.

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