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НазваThe Constants of Dutch Foreign Policy (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:

The Constants of Dutch Foreign Policy

Peace, Profits and Principles is the catchy alliterative title of a
book on Dutch foreign policy by Joris Voorhoeve, one-time parliamentary
leader of the VVD (1986-90). Under these three headings he sought to
analyse the major traditions of this foreign policy, which he defined as
'maritime commercialism' 'neutralist abstentionism' and
'internationalist idealism'. Others have objected to the concept of
traditions in this respect, even arguing that the Dutch have
insufficient historic sense for traditions. Such authors prefer to speak
of tendencies, themes, or constants, and some of them have amended or
enlarged Voorhoeve's list. On closer inspection, however, the themes
mentioned by other authors remain closely related to the clusters of
attitudes mentioned by Voorhoeve. There is also little disagreement
concerning the origins of such tendencies or traditions.

Both the size and geographical location of the country have left their
imprint on the country's external relations. The Dutch domestic market
being quite small but ideally located to serve as a gateway to the
European hinterland, the Netherlands came to rely on maritime trade.
This has brought an Atlantic perspective to its foreign policy,
sometimes bordering on anti-continentalism. Already in the seventeenth
century, Pieter de la Court, a Leyden merchant and political scientist,
advocated creating a wide swathe of water to the cast of the province of
Holland, to separate it from the European continent. As late as the
1950s the Dutch Foreign Office proclaimed: ' The Netherlands cannot
exist without Europe, but it is a continental European nation neither in
its history, nor in its character.' Despite altercations with the
British first, and despite irritation over American pressure to
decolonise later, the Netherlands has continued to rely on these two
extra-continental powers. This reliance is due partly to the importance
of maritime trade, but also to the desire to have a countervailing power
to the dominant state on the continent, be it German or French.

The significance of trade for the Dutch economy has also led to another
of Voorhoeve's traditions, 'neutralist abstentionism', a set of
preferences described by others as 'economic pacifism'; it is a
reluctance to accept changes in the status quo, or downright
conservatism. The Dutch colonial empire could not be defended
adequately, and was therefore best protected by a neutralist policy. The
flow of commerce was best served by an opportunistic abstention from
European power politics. Any disturbance of the balance of power could
be detrimental to trade, and was therefore deplored. The Netherlands has
been described as a 'satisfied nation', quite happy with things as they
are in the world. After 1945 the failure of neutralism as a security
strategy was recognised by Dutch politicians and the public alike, and
the joining of the Atlantic Alliance has been interpreted as an
unequivocal abandonment of the neutralist tradition. Other observers,
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