найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75770
останнє поновлення: 2016-10-24
за 7 днів додано 10

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок


реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe English Teachers Handbook (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу
The English Teachers Handbook


As a means of communication, writing differs from speaking in several
important ways. Firstly, writing is permanent, speaking is not.
Secondly, we can correct what we write before it is received by the
reader. Corrections when we speak tend to take place after we have
already made an error which our audience has received. Thirdly, we
usually write for a receiver who is physically absent from us, whereas
most speaking that we do is for an audience which is actually present as
we speak. Fourthly, the physical distance between writer and reader
means that the reader can't easily ask the writer to explain something
unclear or ambiguous. In face-to-face speech, such feedback from
listener to speaker is instantaneous. So the writer has to be very
careful to ensure that his written message is complete in itself. He
shouldn't make any assumptions about shared knowledge between himself
and his audience. Nor should the writer leave any room for
misunderstandings through unclear expression or faulty organization of
his text.

Writing exercises are of two types - those which consolidate language
already presented and practised orally, and those which develop the
skills of communicating in writing.

Most textbooks contain plenty of examples of the first type, although
such exercises are limited in what they can achieve. They may require
the student to practise writing a number of unrelated sentences, and
although this is perfectly acceptable as a practice activity, it must be
remembered that we hardly ever actually write only one sentence at a
time. A written message usually consists of a number of interrelated

Another limitation of such exercises is that they test students instead
of teaching them. Typically, students are given a rule or an example,
and then have to produce a number of other sentences in which the rule
is applied. Sometimes this can result in the production of complicated
sentences which would hardly ever actually be written. The students are
simply practising instances of classroom or textbook language.

A third limitation is giving students instructions such as 'Write these
sentences with the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.' The students
are then given a series of sentences with the infinitive form of the
verb as a prompt. They have to convert these infinitives into the
correct tense, which can be a confusing and difficult task with the
infinitive acting as a distractor. Such exercises tend to test the
students before they are ready to be tested, and mistakes are common.

It is better to provide exercises in which students can actually
consolidate their learning. Instead of asking them to convert actives to
passives, or past tenses to present, or infinitives to the correct
tense, it is preferable to give the correct form, and require the
students to make a correct choice without being distracted by the wrong
form. For instance, if we want the students to practise matching the
appropriate verb form with a singular or plural subject in the present
-----> Page: 
0 [1] [2] [3] [4]

© UKRREFERAT.COM 2000-2016

Друзі: Картинки, Приколы, Истории в ibigdan!