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НазваThe English Teachers Handbook (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The English Teachers Handbook




As a means of communication, writing differs from speaking in several

important ways. Firstly, writing is permanent, speaking is not.

Secondly, we can correct what we write before it is received by the

reader. Corrections when we speak tend to take place after we have

already made an error which our audience has received. Thirdly, we

usually write for a receiver who is physically absent from us, whereas

most speaking that we do is for an audience which is actually present as

we speak. Fourthly, the physical distance between writer and reader

means that the reader can't easily ask the writer to explain something

unclear or ambiguous. In face-to-face speech, such feedback from

listener to speaker is instantaneous. So the writer has to be very

careful to ensure that his written message is complete in itself. He

shouldn't make any assumptions about shared knowledge between himself

and his audience. Nor should the writer leave any room for

misunderstandings through unclear expression or faulty organization of

his text.


Writing exercises are of two types - those which consolidate language

already presented and practised orally, and those which develop the

skills of communicating in writing.


Most textbooks contain plenty of examples of the first type, although

such exercises are limited in what they can achieve. They may require

the student to practise writing a number of unrelated sentences, and

although this is perfectly acceptable as a practice activity, it must be

remembered that we hardly ever actually write only one sentence at a

time. A written message usually consists of a number of interrelated



Another limitation of such exercises is that they test students instead

of teaching them. Typically, students are given a rule or an example,

and then have to produce a number of other sentences in which the rule

is applied. Sometimes this can result in the production of complicated

sentences which would hardly ever actually be written. The students are

simply practising instances of classroom or textbook language.


A third limitation is giving students instructions such as 'Write these

sentences with the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.' The students

are then given a series of sentences with the infinitive form of the

verb as a prompt. They have to convert these infinitives into the

correct tense, which can be a confusing and difficult task with the

infinitive acting as a distractor. Such exercises tend to test the

students before they are ready to be tested, and mistakes are common.


It is better to provide exercises in which students can actually

consolidate their learning. Instead of asking them to convert actives to

passives, or past tenses to present, or infinitives to the correct

tense, it is preferable to give the correct form, and require the

students to make a correct choice without being distracted by the wrong

form. For instance, if we want the students to practise matching the

appropriate verb form with a singular or plural subject in the present

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