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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe Hermitage(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


The Hermitage


The State Hermitage in St. Petersburg ranks among the world’s most

outstanding art museums. It is the largest museum in Russia: nowadays

its vast and varied collections take up four buildings; its rooms if

stretched in one line would measure many miles in total length, while

they cover an area of 94240 square meters. Over 300 rooms are open to

the public and contain a rich selection from the museum’s collections

numbering about 2500000 items. The earliest exhibits Date from

500000-300000B.C., the latest are modern works.


The collections possessed by the museum are distributed among its seven

departments and form over forty permanent exhibitions. A common feature,

characterising these exhibitions is the arrangement of items (all of

them originals) according to countries and schools in a strictly

chronological order, with a view to illustrating almost every stage of

human culture and every great art epoch from the prehistoric times to

the 20th century.


Fabulous treasures are gathered in the Museum. It contains a rare

collection of specimens of Soythian culture and art; objects of great

aesthetic and historical value found in the burial mounds of the Altai;

a most complete representation of exhibits characterising Russian

culture and art. The Oriental collections of the Museum, ranking among

the richest in the world, give an idea of the culture and art of the

people of the Near and the Far East; India, China, Byzantium and Iran,

are best represented; remarkable materials illustrative of the culture

and art of the peoples inhabiting the Caucasus and Central Asia, also

from part of the collections of the Department. The Museum numbers among

its treasures monuments of ancient Greece and Rome and those from the

Greek settlements on the North coast of the Black Sea.


World famous is the collection of West-European paintings, covering a

span of about seven hundred years, from the 13th to the 20th century,

and comprising works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, El Greco,

Velazquez, Murillo; outstanding paintings by Rembrandt, Van Dyck,

Rubens; a remarkable group of French eighteenth century canvases, and

Impressionist and Post Impressionist paintings. The collection

illustrates the art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, France,

Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and some other countries. The West

European Department of the Museum also includes a fine collection of

European sculpture, containing works by Michelangelo, Canova, Falkonet,

Houdon, Rodin and many other eminent masters; a marvellous collection of

prints and drawings, numbering about 600 000 items; arms and armour; one

of the world most outstanding collections of applied art, rich in

tapestries, furniture, lace, ivories, porcelain metalwork, bronzes,

silver, jewellery and enamels. An important part among the museum

possessions is taken by the numismatic collection, which numbers over 1

000 000 items and is regarded as one of the largest in the world. A

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