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The history of Australia ()
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The history of Australia

 

Contents

 

General information about Australia3

 

National anthem, flag and the coat-of-arms3

 

Terra Incognita (Unknown land)..4

 

First European settlement.4

 

Creation of the Commonwealth of Australia5

 

New crown colonies.5

 

Australias ties with Great Britain and the USA..6

 

Literature..8

 

General Information about Australia

 

Australia is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean. The area

of this country is 7,7 million square kilometres. The population of the

country is about 20 million people. The capital is Canberra. The

population of Canberra is about 300 thousand people. Official language

is English. Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the

smallest continent.

 

The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. It has

got 6 states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,

Tasmania and 2 internal territories.

 

National Anthem, Flag and the Coat-of-Arms

 

Australian national flag consists of 5 white stars of the Southern Cross

and the white Commonwealth star (the large seven pointed star) on a

blue background with a Union Jack in canton. The Southern Cross is the

southern Crux, whose four chief stars are in the form of cross.

 

The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The

small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, and the

large seven-pointed star represents the six states and the Territories,

and the small stars form the Southern Cross a prominent feature of the

southern hemisphere night sky.

 

A distinctive Australia flora and fauna is reflected in the countrys

coat-of-arms by the symbols of Australias endemic animals; kangaroo and

emu and twig of wattle (a kind of acacia).

 

Australia officially adopted green and gold as its national colours in

1984.

 

The Australia national anthem was adopted in the 1970ties. It is used on

the all official and ceremonial occasions.

 

Terra Incognita

 

(Unknown Land)

 

It is supposed that Australias native inhabitants, the Aborigines,

arrived in Australia at least 40,000 years ago. The first Europeans

visited the shores of Australia in 1606. The Spanish ship of Luis Vaes

de Torres sailed through the strait which now bears his name and

separates Australia and Papua New Guinea. In the same year the Dutch

ship Duyfken (Little Dove) sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Among

later voyagers is Dirk Hartog (1616), who left an inscribed pewter

plate (Australias most famous early European relic, now in Amsterdam)

in Western Australia.

 

Abel Tasman, Dutch navigator, visited Tasmania, which he named Van

Diemens Land, in 1642.

 

The first Englishman to visit the continent was a buccaneer, William

Dampier, who landed near King Sound on the northwest coast in 1699.

 

A second wave of immigration began in 1770, when Captain James Cook, of

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