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НазваThe history of Enlgand ... (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of
Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy.

The political history of British Isles over the past 800 years has been
largely one of reducing the power of the monarchy and transferring
authority to a London-based Parliament as the sovereign legislative body
for all of Britain. This development has resulted in political, social
and religious conflicts, as well as evolving governmental and
constitutional institutions.

The early political history of the British Isles is the story of four
independent countries (England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland), but a
dominant English political and military expansionism over the centuries
resulted in a united country (United Kingdom).

The last England’s invader Duke William promptly set out to establish
firm control over his English kingdom. He reorganized the government by
making the old Saxon witan into a “Great Council”, which included the
great lords of the realm and met regularly under William’s direction,
and by establishing Curia Regis, a permanent council of royal advisers.

William’s youngest son Henry I ruled the country for 35 years and during
his reign he won the support of barons by singing a “Charter of
Liberties”, which listed and guarantees their rights (individual

Early English monarchs had considerable power, but generally accepted
advice and some limitations on their authority. Powerful French-Norman
barons opposed King John’s dictatorial rule by forcing him to sign Magna
Carta in 1215. This document protected the feudal aristocracy rather
then the ordinary citizen, but it came to be regarded as a cornerstone
of British liberties. It restricted the monarch’s powers; forced him to
take advice; increased the influence of the aristocracy; and stipulated
that no citizen could be punished or kept in prison without a fair

Such developments encouraged the establishment of parliamentary
structures. In 1265, Simon de Montfort called nobles and non-aristocrats
to form a Council or Parliament to win the support of people. To it were
invited not only the great barons and clergy, but also representatives
of the knights of shires and from the towns. This initiative was
followed in 1295 by the Model Parliament (because it served a model for
later Parliaments) of Edward I, which was the first representative
English Parliament. Its two sections consisted of the bishops, barons,
two representatives of the knights of each shire and two representatives
from each important town. In this way Parliament won the “power of the
purse”: by refusing to agree to new taxes, it could force kings to do as
it wished. As Parliament became more influential it won other rights,
such as the power of impeach and try royal officials for misbehavior.
From here we can conclude that by the end of Edward’s reign the
peculiarly English concept of government, in which a strong king with
powerful royal officials is still limited by the common law and by
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