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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe History of Smart - Cards and The Place in Modern Russia (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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the term paper

The History Of Smart-Cards

and Their Place In Modern Russia


  TOC \o "1-3"  Introduction	  PAGEREF _Toc482676025 \h  2 

What are plastic cards? What kinds of cards exist?	  PAGEREF
_Toc482676026 \h  2 

Cards with  magnetic line and memory-cards	  PAGEREF _Toc482676027 \h  2

Smart-cards: step forward	  PAGEREF _Toc482676028 \h  4 

The developing of smart technology	  PAGEREF _Toc482676029 \h  5 

Smart-cards appear in Russia	  PAGEREF _Toc482676030 \h  7 

Smart-cards as bank’s cards	  PAGEREF _Toc482676031 \h  7 

Smart-cards as corporate cards	  PAGEREF _Toc482676032 \h  8 

The place of smart-cards in modern Russia	  PAGEREF _Toc482676033 \h  12

Plastic card payments in Internet	  PAGEREF _Toc482676034 \h  14 

Conclusion	  PAGEREF _Toc482676035 \h  15 

Sources and literature	  PAGEREF _Toc482676036 \h  16 



Russian smart-cards market is one of the fastest developing sectors of
country’s financial market. The trial period which was over by 1995
allowed its participants to learn technologies and problems that can be
hit upon while dealing with “cards” business. The fact that more then
500.000 international plastic cards were issued in Russia for several
last years only approves of the topicality of such payment systems.

What are plastic cards? What kinds of cards exist?

Cards with  magnetic line and memory-cards

Cashless payment  systems based on traditional cards with magnetic line
are dominating world wide. They achieved noticeable improvement in
supplying card owners with many kinds of services. But the fact of
internal limits in magnetic line cards leads to many new problems. These
problems are: the increase of financial risks and losses, administration
expenses, technical problems. This kind of cards has a lot of
disadvantages that make their operation in Russia in same scale as in
Europe impossible. The most serious disadvantage, in my opinion, is that
such systems require on-line authorization in stores and, as a
consequence,  they need well branched high quality communication nets
(e.g. telephone lines).Because of this fact  magnetic line cards systems
have a serious restriction for their operation in the countries with
unsatisfactory state of telecommunication systems. I also have to notice
a low security level of magnetic line cards and the entire technological
chain  of such systems.  This often leads to great flow of unprovided
false transactions. This aspect is a serious obstacle to developing
magnetic card systems, especially in the countries with a high level of

Memory-cards  belong to chip-cards equipped with memory chip. Payment
systems based on memory cards have important advantages as compared with
magnetic line cards. They have a higher security level and the option of
off-line authorization in stores. Technical abilities of chip built in
memory cards define restrictions to their operating in payment systems
though. We have just the same problem here (as with magnetic line cards)
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