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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe History of Smart - Cards and The Place in Modern Russia (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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the term paper


The History Of Smart-Cards


and Their Place In Modern Russia




TOC \o "1-3" Introduction PAGEREF _Toc482676025 \h 2


What are plastic cards? What kinds of cards exist? PAGEREF

_Toc482676026 \h 2


Cards with magnetic line and memory-cards PAGEREF _Toc482676027 \h 2



Smart-cards: step forward PAGEREF _Toc482676028 \h 4


The developing of smart technology PAGEREF _Toc482676029 \h 5


Smart-cards appear in Russia PAGEREF _Toc482676030 \h 7


Smart-cards as bank’s cards PAGEREF _Toc482676031 \h 7


Smart-cards as corporate cards PAGEREF _Toc482676032 \h 8


The place of smart-cards in modern Russia PAGEREF _Toc482676033 \h 12



Plastic card payments in Internet PAGEREF _Toc482676034 \h 14


Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc482676035 \h 15


Sources and literature PAGEREF _Toc482676036 \h 16





Russian smart-cards market is one of the fastest developing sectors of

country’s financial market. The trial period which was over by 1995

allowed its participants to learn technologies and problems that can be

hit upon while dealing with “cards” business. The fact that more then

500.000 international plastic cards were issued in Russia for several

last years only approves of the topicality of such payment systems.


What are plastic cards? What kinds of cards exist?


Cards with magnetic line and memory-cards


Cashless payment systems based on traditional cards with magnetic line

are dominating world wide. They achieved noticeable improvement in

supplying card owners with many kinds of services. But the fact of

internal limits in magnetic line cards leads to many new problems. These

problems are: the increase of financial risks and losses, administration

expenses, technical problems. This kind of cards has a lot of

disadvantages that make their operation in Russia in same scale as in

Europe impossible. The most serious disadvantage, in my opinion, is that

such systems require on-line authorization in stores and, as a

consequence, they need well branched high quality communication nets

(e.g. telephone lines).Because of this fact magnetic line cards systems

have a serious restriction for their operation in the countries with

unsatisfactory state of telecommunication systems. I also have to notice

a low security level of magnetic line cards and the entire technological

chain of such systems. This often leads to great flow of unprovided

false transactions. This aspect is a serious obstacle to developing

magnetic card systems, especially in the countries with a high level of



Memory-cards belong to chip-cards equipped with memory chip. Payment

systems based on memory cards have important advantages as compared with

magnetic line cards. They have a higher security level and the option of

off-line authorization in stores. Technical abilities of chip built in

memory cards define restrictions to their operating in payment systems

though. We have just the same problem here (as with magnetic line cards)

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