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НазваThe Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA (реферат)
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NATIONAL PEDAGOGOC UNIVERSITY

 

FOREIGN PHILOLOGY DEPARTMENT

 

Tne Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry

Development in the USA

 

Written by

 

53-th group student

 

Tatiana Ryabchun

 

Kyiv, 2000

 

Reconstruction

 

(1865-77), in U.S. history, period during and after the American Civil

War in which attempts were made to solve the political, social, and

economic problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11

Confederate states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war.

 

As early as 1862, Pres. Abraham Lincoln had appointed provisional

military governors for Louisiana, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The

following year, initial steps were taken to reestablish governments in

newly occupied states in which at least 10 percent of the voting

population had taken the prescribed oath of allegiance. Aware that the

presidential plan omitted any provision for social or economic

reconstruction, the Radical Republicans in Congress resented such a

lenient political arrangement under solely executive jurisdiction. As a

result, the stricter Wade-Davis Bill was passed in 1864 but pocket

vetoed by the President.

 

After Lincoln's assassination (April 1865), Pres. Andrew Johnson further

alienated Congress by continuing Lincoln's moderate policies. The

Fourteenth Amendment, defining national citizenship so as to include

blacks, passed Congress in June 1866 and was ratified, despite rejection

by most Southern states (July 28, 1868). In response to Johnson's

intemperate outbursts against the opposition as well as to several

reactionary developments in the South (e.g., race riots and passage of

the repugnant black codes severely restricting rights of blacks), the

North gave a smashing victory to the Radical Republicans in the 1866

congressional election.

 

That victory launched the era of congressional Reconstruction (usually

called Radical Reconstruction), which lasted 10 years starting with the

Reconstruction Acts of 1867. Under that legislation, the 10 remaining

Southern states (Tennessee had been readmitted to the Union in 1866)

were divided into five military districts; and, under supervision of the

U.S. Army, all were readmitted between 1868 and 1870. Each state had to

accept the Fourteenth or, if readmitted after its passage, the Fifteenth

Constitutional Amendment, intended to ensure civil rights of the

freedmen. The newly created state governments were generally Republican

in character and were governed by political coalitions of blacks,

carpetbaggers (Northerners who had gone into the South), and scalawags

(Southerners who collaborated with the blacks and carpetbaggers). The

Republican governments of the former Confederate states were seen by

most Southern whites as artificial creations imposed from without, and

the conservative element in the region remained hostile to them.

Southerners particularly resented the activities of the Freedmen's

Bureau, which Congress had established to feed, protect, and help

educate the newly emancipated blacks. This resentment led to formation

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