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НазваThe Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Tne Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry
Development in the USA 

Written by 

53-th  group student

Tatiana Ryabchun

Kyiv, 2000


 	(1865-77), in U.S. history, period during and after the American Civil
War in which attempts were made to solve the political, social, and
economic problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11
Confederate states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war. 

As early as 1862, Pres. Abraham Lincoln had appointed provisional
military governors for Louisiana, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The
following year, initial steps were taken to reestablish governments in
newly occupied states in which at least 10 percent of the voting
population had taken the prescribed oath of allegiance. Aware that the
presidential plan omitted any provision for social or economic
reconstruction, the Radical Republicans in Congress resented such a
lenient political arrangement under solely executive jurisdiction. As a
result, the stricter Wade-Davis Bill was passed in 1864 but pocket
vetoed by the President. 

After Lincoln's assassination (April 1865), Pres. Andrew Johnson further
alienated Congress by continuing Lincoln's moderate policies. The
Fourteenth Amendment, defining national citizenship so as to include
blacks, passed Congress in June 1866 and was ratified, despite rejection
by most Southern states (July 28, 1868). In response to Johnson's
intemperate outbursts against the opposition as well as to several
reactionary developments in the South (e.g., race riots and passage of
the repugnant black codes severely restricting rights of blacks), the
North gave a smashing victory to the Radical Republicans in the 1866
congressional election. 

That victory launched the era of congressional Reconstruction (usually
called Radical Reconstruction), which lasted 10 years starting with the
Reconstruction Acts of 1867. Under that legislation, the 10 remaining
Southern states (Tennessee had been readmitted to the Union in 1866)
were divided into five military districts; and, under supervision of the
U.S. Army, all were readmitted between 1868 and 1870. Each state had to
accept the Fourteenth or, if readmitted after its passage, the Fifteenth
Constitutional Amendment, intended to ensure civil rights of the
freedmen. The newly created state governments were generally Republican
in character and were governed by political coalitions of blacks,
carpetbaggers (Northerners who had gone into the South), and scalawags
(Southerners who collaborated with the blacks and carpetbaggers). The
Republican governments of the former Confederate states were seen by
most Southern whites as artificial creations imposed from without, and
the conservative element in the region remained hostile to them.
Southerners particularly resented the activities of the Freedmen's
Bureau, which Congress had established to feed, protect, and help
educate the newly emancipated blacks. This resentment led to formation
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