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НазваThe JAZZ Story (курсова робота)
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Реферат на тему:

 

The JAZZ Story

 

An Outline History of Jazz

 

In the span of less than a century, the remarkable native American

music

 

called Jazz has risen from obscure folk origins to become this

country's

 

most significant original art form, loved and played in nearly

every land on

 

earth.

 

Today, Jazz flourishes in many styles, from basic blues and ragtime

 

through New Orleans and Dixieland, swing and mainstream, bebop and

 

modern to free form and electronic. What is extraordinary is not

that Jazz

 

has taken so many forms, but that each form has been vital enough

to

 

survive and to retain its own character and special appeal. It

takes only

 

open ears and an open mind to appreciate all the many and

wide-raging

 

delights jazz has to offer.

 

THE ROOTS

 

Jazz developed from folk sources. Its origins are shrouded in

obscurity, but

 

the slaves brought here from Africa, torn from their own ancestral

culture,

 

developed it as a new form of communication in song and story.

 

Black music in America retained much of Africa in its distinctive

rhythmic

 

elements and also in its tradition of collective improvisation.

This heritage,

 

blended with the music of the new land, much of it vocal, produced

more

 

than just a new sound. It generated an entire new mode of musical

 

expression.

 

The most famous form of early Afro-American music is the spiritual.

 

These beautiful and moving religious songs were most often heard by

 

white audiences in more genteel versions than those performed in

rural

 

black churches. What is known as gospel music today, more

accurately

 

reflects the emotional power and rhythmic drive of early

Afro-American

 

music than a recording of a spiritual by the famous Fisk Jubilee

Singers

 

from the first decade of this century.

 

Other early musical forms dating from the slavery years include

work

 

songs, children's songs, and dances, adding up to a remarkable

legacy,

 

especially since musical activity was considerable restricted under

that

 

system.

 

BIRTH OF THE BLUES

 

After the slaves were freed, Afro-American music grew rapidly. The

 

availability of musical instruments, including military band

discards, and

 

the new-found mobility gave birth to the basic roots of Jazz: brass

and

 

dance band music and the blues.

 

The blues, a seemingly simple form of music that nevertheless lends

itself

 

to almost infinite variation, has been a significant part of every

Jazz style,

 

and has also survived in its own right. Today's rock and soul music

would

 

be impossible without the blues. Simply explained, it is and eight

(or

 

twelve) bar strain with lyrics in which the first stanza is

repeated. It gets its

 

characteristic "blue" quality from a flattening of the third and

seventh notes

 

of the tempered scale. In effect, the blues is the secular

counterpart of the

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