найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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НазваThe Making of the collection(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Тип документуРеферат
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         Although visited now by thousands of people the Museum
traditionally retains the old name of the Hermitage attached to it in
the 1760’s and meaning «a hermit’s dwelling», or «a solitary place». The
name is due to the fact that the Hermitage was founded as a palace
museum accessible only to the nearest of the near to the court.

A number of objects of which but a small part was later incorporated in
the museum’s collections were acquired in different countries by Peter
I. These were  antique statues Marine landscapes,  land a collection  of
Siberian  ancient  gold buckles. However,  the foundation of the
Hermitage is usually dated to the year 1764 when a collection of 225
pictures  was bought by Catherine II from the Prussian merchant

A feature characteristic of the 18th century  accusations  was the
purchase of large groups of paintings,    sometimes of   complete
galleries, bought en blok  at the sales    in Western Europe.Count
Bruhl’s collection acquired  in Dresden in 1769, the Gallery of Crozat,
bought in Paris in 1772 and the gallery of  Lord  Walpole  acquired in
London in 1779   were the most  prominent among the acquisitions made in
the 18th century.   Together with numerous purchases of individual
pictures, they  supplied  the museum  with most outstanding  canvases of
the European school ,including  those by    Rembraandt,Rubens,Van  Dyck
and other   eminent  artists, and made the Hermitage rank among  the
finest  art galleries of Europe. Works , commissioned by  the Russian
court  from European  painters also enriched the   Picture gallery.By
1785 the Museum  numbered 2658 paintings. Prints and drawings, cameos,
coins and medals were likewise represented at the Hermitage.

       The acquisition of complete collections and of individual works
of art   was continued  in the 19th century but on a more modest scale
than during  the previous period. Among the most notable acquisitions of
the 19th century were: Mathew Malmaison Gallery of the Empress 
Josephine bought  in 1814; the collection of the English banker Coesvelt
consisting mainly of Spanish paintings, purchased in Amsterdam the same
year; as well as the paintings from the Barrbarigo Palace inVenice which
gave the Museum its best Titians.

       As to the individual works of art, the acquisition in 1865 of
Leonardo  da Vince’s «Madonna Litta»fromthe Duce of Litta collection and
the purchase  of Raphael’s «Virgin and Child»  from the  Conestebite
family in 1870, were important  landmarks in the growth of the treasures
of the Hermitage.

       In 1885 the Hermitage received an important  collection of
objects of applied art of the 12th – 26th centuries,   gathered  by
Basilevsky;   , together with the Armoury transferred   from  Tsarskoe
Selo,  notably enriched   the Museum   with a new type of material      

       The first decade  of the 20th century   witnessed the acquisition
 of a magnificent collection     including 730 canvases by the Dutch and
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