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НазваThe old Indian civilization (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


The old Indian civilization




The “unknown land” of Asia – India.


Early Indian Civilization.


Key Features of Indian Society.


Religion and the Indian way of life.


Lack of Political Unity.


India’s literature represented by Mahabharata and Ramayana.


Customs in India – the practice of self-immolation by fire.


The role of muslims in India’s life.


Taj Mahal.


Art of India.



The “unknown lands” of Asia and Africa have fascinated Westerners for

centuries. The Orient, with her silks and her unique cultures, has

attracted travelers since early days. Despite the contacts, between Asia

and Africa remained virtually unaffected by Western influences until the

twentieth century.


India is a land of great diversity, in its topography (the physical

features of a land), climate, and population, it is a study in

contrasts. This triangular subcontinent extends from southern Asia into

the Indian Ocean, forming a giant Pennsylvania. It’s terrain varies from

subtropical rain forest to barren deserts, from low coastal plains to

the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayas. Between the

rugged mountain regions in the north and the coastal plains and tropical

plateaus of the south lie fertile valleys watered by two great river

systems, the Indus and the Ganges. Like the Mesopotamian and Egyptian

cultures, the earliest Indian civilization began along riverbanks. The

first inhabitants of India settled in river valleys along the Indus and

Ganges rivers.


These people must have felt secure from invaders and foreign influences.

They were protected by tall mountain ranges in the north and by seas on

the east and west. But despite these natural barriers, India did not

remain an isolated land.


Throughout her history, merchants, foreign invaders and Wandering tribes

crossed the mountains along India’s northwestern border and settled in

the fertile river valleys. As a result, India became a land of diverse

elements. Within Indian Society, a unique culture developed.


Early Indian Civilization


India derives its name from the Indus River, along whose fertile banks

the earliest Indian civilization flourished (ca 2300 BC). Much of our

limited knowledge of this civilization has come from excavations of two

of its leading cities: Mohenjo – Daro and Harappa. These carefully

planned cities had wide, straight streets lined with brick houses.

Evidence indicates that, these cities had elaborate drainage and sewer

systems, which were more advanced than those in most, modern Indian



Although a great distance separates India and the Near East, the early

inhabitants of India carried on trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. From

archeological evidence it is known that the Indus civilization ended

suddenly – perhaps by flood on by enemy invasion. It was at this time

that a warlike people called the Aryans migrated into the Indus Valley.


The Aryans were a fair-skinned people who came from central Asia

sometime after 1500 BC and subdued the non Aryan people of northwest

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