Реферат на тему:
The old Indian civilization
The “unknown land” of Asia – India.
Early Indian Civilization.
Key Features of Indian Society.
Religion and the Indian way of life.
Lack of Political Unity.
India’s literature represented by Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Customs in India – the practice of self-immolation by fire.
The role of muslims in India’s life.
Art of India.
The “unknown lands” of Asia and Africa have fascinated Westerners for
centuries. The Orient, with her silks and her unique cultures, has
attracted travelers since early days. Despite the contacts, between Asia
and Africa remained virtually unaffected by Western influences until the
India is a land of great diversity, in its topography (the physical
features of a land), climate, and population, it is a study in
contrasts. This triangular subcontinent extends from southern Asia into
the Indian Ocean, forming a giant Pennsylvania. It’s terrain varies from
subtropical rain forest to barren deserts, from low coastal plains to
the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayas. Between the
rugged mountain regions in the north and the coastal plains and tropical
plateaus of the south lie fertile valleys watered by two great river
systems, the Indus and the Ganges. Like the Mesopotamian and Egyptian
cultures, the earliest Indian civilization began along riverbanks. The
first inhabitants of India settled in river valleys along the Indus and
These people must have felt secure from invaders and foreign influences.
They were protected by tall mountain ranges in the north and by seas on
the east and west. But despite these natural barriers, India did not
remain an isolated land.
Throughout her history, merchants, foreign invaders and Wandering tribes
crossed the mountains along India’s northwestern border and settled in
the fertile river valleys. As a result, India became a land of diverse
elements. Within Indian Society, a unique culture developed.
Early Indian Civilization
India derives its name from the Indus River, along whose fertile banks
the earliest Indian civilization flourished (ca 2300 BC). Much of our
limited knowledge of this civilization has come from excavations of two
of its leading cities: Mohenjo – Daro and Harappa. These carefully
planned cities had wide, straight streets lined with brick houses.
Evidence indicates that, these cities had elaborate drainage and sewer
systems, which were more advanced than those in most, modern Indian
Although a great distance separates India and the Near East, the early
inhabitants of India carried on trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. From
archeological evidence it is known that the Indus civilization ended
suddenly – perhaps by flood on by enemy invasion. It was at this time
that a warlike people called the Aryans migrated into the Indus Valley.
The Aryans were a fair-skinned people who came from central Asia
sometime after 1500 BC and subdued the non Aryan people of northwest
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