Тема: JHE PHONEM‘S THEORY
It is interesting at this stage to consider the system of phonetic
notations which is generally termed as “transcription”. Transcription
is a set of symbols representing speech sounds. The symbolization of
sounds naturally differs according to whether the aim is to indicate the
phoneme, i.e. a functional as whole, or to reflect the modifications of
its allophones as well.
The International Phonetic Association (IPA) has given accepted values
to an inventory of symbols, mainly alphabetic but with additions.
“Agreed values” means, for example that the symbol [q] represents a
lenis backlingual stop as in gate and not the orthographic “g” of gin,
which is notated as [d3].
The first type of notation, the broad or broad or phonemic
transcription, provides special symbols for all the phonemes of a
language. The second type, the narrow or allophonic transcription,
suggests special symbols including some information about articulatory
activity of particular allophonic features. The road transcription is
mainly used fir practical expedience, the narrow type serves the
purposes of research work.
і], -[e] – [ae], [ ] – [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ] – [ ]. This way of
notation disguises the qualitative difference between the vowels [ ] and
[і:], [ ] and [ ], [ ] and [ ], and [ з:] though nowadays most
phoneticians agree that vowel length is not a distinctive feature of
vowel, but is rather dependent upon the phonetic context, that is it is
definitely redundant. For example, example, in such word pairs as hit –
neat, cock, pull – pool the opposed vowels are approximately of the
same length, the only difference between them lies in their quality
which is therefore relevant.
More than that. Phonetic transcription is a good basis for teaching the
pronunciation of a foreign of a foreign language, being a powerful
visual aid. To achieve good results it is necessary that the learners of
English should associate each relevant difference between the phonemes
with special symbols, that is each phoneme should have a special symbol.
If not, the difference between the pairs of sounds above may be wrongly
associated with vowel length which is non-distinctive (redundant) in
The other type broad transcription, first used by V.A. Vassilyev, causes
no phonological misunderstanding providing special symbols for all vowel
phonemes: [ І ], [і:], [ е ], [ае ], [ а: ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],
[ и ], [ з: ], [ ], Being a good visual aid this way of notation can be
strongly recommended for teaching the pronunciation of English to any
But phonemic representation is rather imprecise as it gives too little
information about the actual speech sounds. It incorporates only as much
phonetic information as if is necessary to distinguish the functioning
of sounds in a language. The narrow or phonetic transcription
incorporates as much more phonetic information as the phonetician
desires, or as he can distinguish. It provides special symbols to denote
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