найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe phonem‘s theory (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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It is interesting at this stage to consider the system of phonetic

notations which is generally termed as “transcription”. Transcription

is a set of symbols representing speech sounds. The symbolization of

sounds naturally differs according to whether the aim is to indicate the

phoneme, i.e. a functional as whole, or to reflect the modifications of

its allophones as well.


The International Phonetic Association (IPA) has given accepted values

to an inventory of symbols, mainly alphabetic but with additions.

“Agreed values” means, for example that the symbol [q] represents a

lenis backlingual stop as in gate and not the orthographic “g” of gin,

which is notated as [d3].


The first type of notation, the broad or broad or phonemic

transcription, provides special symbols for all the phonemes of a

language. The second type, the narrow or allophonic transcription,

suggests special symbols including some information about articulatory

activity of particular allophonic features. The road transcription is

mainly used fir practical expedience, the narrow type serves the

purposes of research work.


і], -[e] – [ae], [ ] – [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ] – [ ]. This way of

notation disguises the qualitative difference between the vowels [ ] and

[і:], [ ] and [ ], [ ] and [ ], and [ з:] though nowadays most

phoneticians agree that vowel length is not a distinctive feature of

vowel, but is rather dependent upon the phonetic context, that is it is

definitely redundant. For example, example, in such word pairs as hit –

neat, cock, pull – pool the opposed vowels are approximately of the

same length, the only difference between them lies in their quality

which is therefore relevant.


More than that. Phonetic transcription is a good basis for teaching the

pronunciation of a foreign of a foreign language, being a powerful

visual aid. To achieve good results it is necessary that the learners of

English should associate each relevant difference between the phonemes

with special symbols, that is each phoneme should have a special symbol.

If not, the difference between the pairs of sounds above may be wrongly

associated with vowel length which is non-distinctive (redundant) in

modern English.


The other type broad transcription, first used by V.A. Vassilyev, causes

no phonological misunderstanding providing special symbols for all vowel

phonemes: [ І ], [і:], [ е ], [ае ], [ а: ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],

[ и ], [ з: ], [ ], Being a good visual aid this way of notation can be

strongly recommended for teaching the pronunciation of English to any



But phonemic representation is rather imprecise as it gives too little

information about the actual speech sounds. It incorporates only as much

phonetic information as if is necessary to distinguish the functioning

of sounds in a language. The narrow or phonetic transcription

incorporates as much more phonetic information as the phonetician

desires, or as he can distinguish. It provides special symbols to denote

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