Реферат на тему:
The Political System of the USA.
The USA is a federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the
constitution, adopted in 1787, which prescribes the structure of
national government and lists its rights and fields of authority. Each
state has its government and all of them have the dual character of both
Federal and State government. The political system of the USA is divided
into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. Each branch
holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part in
the governmental process.
The flag. It is called the stars and the stripes and old glory. It was
adopted in 1777. The red stripes proclaim courage, the white - liberty,
and the field of blue stands for loyalty.
The coat of arms. The coat of arms of the US represents an eagle with
wings outspread, holding a bangle of rods (the symbol of administer) in
the left claw and olive twig (the emblem of love) in the right claw. The
motto of the coat of arms is 'one out of many" (aplinibus nun).
The nick name. It was in 1812 when the nickname of the US government
"Uncle Sam" appeared. 'Uncle' Samuel Wilson supplied beef to the
American army, during the war of 1812, standing his barrels with the
letters 'U. S.’ The army as ‘Uncle Sam’s’ knew this beef, and later on
this familiar name became associated with the US government.
The constitution of the USA. Although the American system of government
is based on Great Britain's, it differs in having a written
constitution, that is the bases of all government and law. The
constitution of the US was adopted after the War of Independence on the
17th of September 1787. It lists the set of rules, law regulations,
which provide the practical norms, regulating the work of the
government. The document imbodied the practical theories of man of
property. The main principle underline the constitution was as follows:
"Private property is the backbone of liberty". It was put forward by a
rich plantation owner from Virginia James Madison, who is known to be a
father of the constitution.
The constitution consists of Preamble and seven articles. 27
amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10
amendments, known as "the Bill of Rights', were added in a group in
1791. These amendments establish the individual rights and freedoms to
all people of the states, including freedom of speech, freedom of the
press, freedom of worship etc. Americans fill that of all freedoms,
proclaimed in the constitution, there is only one freedom - the freedom
of enterprise. But it means freedom of the wealthy people only. The 21st
amendment limited the President's ruling by maximum two terms.
The legislative branch. Supreme legislative power in the American
government lies with Congress: the Senate, the upper house; and the
House of the Representatives - the Lower House. Each state has its own
government - State Assemblies or, Legislatures with two houses.
According to the constitution of the USA, all citizens of both sexes
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