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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe teaching of Hugo Gratius of war and peace (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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“The teaching of Hugo Gratius


of war and peace.”




TOC \o "1-3" \h \z Introduction PAGEREF _Toc483989894 \h 3


Chapter I PAGEREF _Toc483989895 \h 4


Chapter II PAGEREF _Toc483989896 \h 7


Chapter III PAGEREF _Toc483989897 \h 12


Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc483989898 \h 15


Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc483989899 \h 16





Hugo Gratius, a scientist and a lawyer from Holland, lived from 1583 to

1645. In his famous treatise “The Three Books on the Right of War and

Peace”, published in 1625, he depicted the struggle of the Dutch capital

for freedom at the sea. He is considered to be the founder of the

bourgeois studies of the international law and is one of the

representatives of the big bourgeoisie as a scholar of law at an early

stage of its development during the dissolution of feudalism in Western

Europe and the first large revolt of bourgeoisie.


This book by Gratius is more or less a systematical report of the basic

theories of international law, which were common for that period of

evolution from feudalism to capitalism. It was for a long time one of

the most important books for diplomats.


According to his beliefs, Hugo was a representative of the period of

transformation from feudalist to bourgeois state. His ideas received

wide spread and founded the basement of further development of the

international law, because they expressed real conditions of development

and political demands of the newly-forming class of bourgeoisie to the

ruling feudal party. I must specially note the progressive character of

some of the Gratius’s ideas in the sphere of the international law that

had a strong influence to modern international relations. Hugo Gratius,

being a bourgeoisie theorist on its early stages, denied the opinion

that force makes all the decisions in the international relations. He

thought that law and justice should be number one in international



But we must not forget that the progressiveness of his ideas was

inconsistent and limited by the narrow frameworks of the bourgeois law

views. It is necessary to note that modern bourgeois ideologists

renounce the principles promoted by the ancestors in 17 – 18 centuries

when bourgeoisie was fighting against feudalism.


Chapter I


Hugo Gratius was on of the representatives of the leading (in 17 – 18

centuries) school of common law and treaty theory of state origins. The

school expressed the basic demands of bourgeoisie in its struggle with

feudalism; its theoretical basement was outlook, turned out as a result

of the revolution in natural history, reformation, and a bundle of

ideas, left from humanism in 15 –16 centuries.


It must be noted here that although the school had a common theoretical

base it was not homogeneous. It had lots of trends, which differed from

one another by phases of bourgeoisie development, stages of her struggle

with feudalism, quantity of different class’s representatives in a

state, and differences in bourgeoisie itself, because different groups

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