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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe teaching of Hugo Gratius of war and peace (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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“The teaching of Hugo Gratius 

of war and peace.”


  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z  Introduction	  PAGEREF _Toc483989894 \h  3 

Chapter I	  PAGEREF _Toc483989895 \h  4 

Chapter II	  PAGEREF _Toc483989896 \h  7 

Chapter III	  PAGEREF _Toc483989897 \h  12 

Conclusion	  PAGEREF _Toc483989898 \h  15 

Bibliography	  PAGEREF _Toc483989899 \h  16 



Hugo Gratius, a scientist and a lawyer from Holland, lived from 1583 to
1645. In his famous treatise “The Three Books on the Right of War and
Peace”, published in 1625, he depicted the struggle of the Dutch capital
for freedom at the sea. He is considered to be the founder of the
bourgeois studies of the international law and is one of the
representatives of the big bourgeoisie as a scholar of law at an early
stage of its development during the dissolution of feudalism in Western
Europe and the first large revolt of bourgeoisie.

This book by Gratius is more or less a systematical report of the basic
theories of international law, which were common for that period of
evolution from feudalism to capitalism. It was for a long time one of
the most important books for diplomats.

According to his beliefs, Hugo was a representative of the period of
transformation from feudalist to bourgeois state. His ideas received
wide spread and founded the basement of further development of the
international law, because they expressed real conditions of development
and political demands of the newly-forming class of bourgeoisie to the
ruling feudal party. I must specially note the progressive character of
some of the Gratius’s ideas in the sphere of the international law that
had a strong influence to modern international relations. Hugo Gratius,
being a bourgeoisie theorist on its early stages, denied the opinion
that force makes all the decisions in the international relations. He
thought that law and justice should be number one in international

But we must not forget that the progressiveness of his ideas was
inconsistent and limited by the narrow frameworks of the bourgeois law
views. It is necessary to note that modern bourgeois ideologists
renounce the principles promoted by the ancestors in 17 – 18 centuries
when bourgeoisie was fighting against feudalism.

Chapter I

Hugo Gratius was on of the representatives of the leading (in 17 – 18
centuries) school of common law and treaty theory of state origins. The
school expressed the basic demands of bourgeoisie in its struggle with
feudalism; its theoretical basement was outlook, turned out as a result
of the revolution in natural history, reformation, and a bundle of
ideas, left from humanism in 15 –16 centuries.

It must be noted here that although the school had a common theoretical
base it was not homogeneous. It had lots of trends, which differed from
one another by phases of bourgeoisie development, stages of her struggle
with feudalism, quantity of different class’s representatives in a
state, and differences in bourgeoisie itself, because different groups
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