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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe Tretyakov gallery(текст)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The Tretyakov Gallery, founded by Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov
(1832-1989), a Moscow  merchant and art patron, is a national treasury
of Russian pre-revolutionary  and Russian art.

The Gallery’s centenary was widely  celebrated  throughout Russia in May
1956. Tretyakov spent his life collecting the works of Russian painters
which reflected the spirit and ideas  of all progressive intellectual of
his day. He began his collection  in 1856  with the purchase of
«Temptation» (1856) by N.Shilder and  «Finnish Smugglers»  (1853) by
V.Khudyakov. These paintings  are on permanent exhibition.  In order
that his collection better reflect the centuries-old traditions of
Russian art he acquired works of various epochs and also began a
collection of antique icons. Tretyakov was one of the few people of his
time who realised the great intrinsic value of ancient Russian art. He
was on  friendly terms with many progressive , democratic Russian
painters, frequenting their  studious, taking an active interest in
their work, often suggesting themes for new  paintings, and helping them
financially.  His collection grew rapidly;  by 1872 a special building
was erected  to house it.

Tretyakov was aware of the national importance of his vast collection of
Russian art and presented it to the city of Moscow in 1892, thus
establishing  the first  museum in Russia. An excerpt from his will
reads: «  Desirous of facilitating the establishment in my beloved city
of useful institutions aimed at promoting the development  of art in
Russia, and in order  to hand down to succeeding generations the
collection I have amassed I hereby bequeath my entire picture gallery
and the works of art contained    therein, as well as my  half  of the
house, to the Moscow City Duma. By special decree of the Soviet
Government, Issued on June 3 1918 and signed by V.I. Lenin, the Gallery
was designated one of the most important educational  establishments of
the country. It was also decreed  that the name of its founder be
retained in honour of Tretyakov’s great services to Russian culture.

The Gallerie’s collection  has grown considerably in the years since the
Revolution. In  1893 it consisted of 1805 works of art, but by 1956 the
number had increased   to 35276.The early Russian Art  department and
the collections of sculpture and drawings were  considerably enlarged,
and an entirely  new department- Soviet Art- was created. By a
Government decision of 1956, a new house is to be built for the Gallery
within the next few years.

At present,  the more interesting  and distinctive works, tracing the
development of Russian  art through nearly ten centuries, are exhibit in
the Gallery’s  54 halls.


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