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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe Welsh language (реферат)
Автор
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Тhe Welsh language

 

The Welsh language, like most of the languages of Europe, and many of

those of Asia, has evolved from what linguists term Indo-European.

Indo-European was spoken about 6000 years ago (4000 BC) by a seminomadic

people who lived in the steppe region of Southern Russia. Speakers of

the languages migrated eastwards and westwards; they had reached the

Danube valley by 3500 BC and India by 2000 BC. The dialects of

Indo-European became much differentiated, chiefly because of migration,

and evolved into separate languages. So great was the variety among them

that it was not until 1786 that the idea was put forward that a Family

of Indo-European languages actually exists. In the twentieth century

Indo-European languages are spoken in a wide arc from Bengal to

Portugal, as well as in countries as distant as New Zealand and Canada,

to which they have been carried by more recent emigrants. The

Indo-European Family is generally considered to consist of nine

different brunches, which in turn gave rise

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Сornish was a language of people who lived in Britain in the Cornwall

inlet and died out towards the end of the eighteenth century. Dorothy

Pentreath, who died in 1777, is usually considered to be the last native

speaker of Cornish. Manx was spread on the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea,

survived until well into the second half of the present sentury and the

last native speaker died at the age of 97 in 1974. Other languages are

still alive and a lot of people talks on them. But nevertheless all this

languages developed from the Celtic language and the people who used

this language were the Celts.

 

The Celts is a group of people who were classified as such by

communities who belonged to a separate cultural (and literate)

tradition. Celtic area is considered to be the north of Alps and beyond

the Mediterranean. It was observers from mediterranean lands of Greece

and Rome who called their neighbours Celts. But today scientists ask the

question who the Celts really are. The problem of defining what is meant

by the terms "Celt" and "Celtic" centres around the relationship, if

any, between material culture, ethnicity and language. Judging by

archaeology, documentary sources and linguistic material the scientists

came to the conclusion that by the last few centuries BC, Celtic

territory stretched from Ireland to eastern Europe and beyond, to

Galatia (see map). The Celts were technically advanced. They knew how to

work with iron, and could make better weapons than the people who used

bronze.

 

Early linguistic evidence for the Celts is extremely rare because

northern Europe was non-literate during most of the first millennium BC.

When writing was adopted in the Celtic world in the late first

millennium it appeared almost entirely in Greek and Latin. Early Celtic

evidence consists of inscriptions, coin legends and the names of people

and places contained within classical documents.

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