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НазваUkraine (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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U k r a i n e



Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and

Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E 

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States 


total: 603,700 sq km 

land: 603,700 sq km 

water: 0 sq km 

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Texas 

Land boundaries: 

total: 4,558 km 

border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland
428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km,
Slovakia 90 km 

Coastline: 2,782 km 

Maritime claims: 

continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation 

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm 

territorial sea: 12 nm 

Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern
Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in
west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool
along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the
greater part of the country, hot in the south 

Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and
plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and
in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south 

Elevation extremes: 

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m 

highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m 

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,
sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber 

Land use: 

arable land: 58% 

permanent crops: 2% 

permanent pastures: 13% 

forests and woodland: 18% 

other: 9% (1993 est.) 

Irrigated land: 26,050 sq km (1993 est.) 

Natural hazards: NA 

Environment—current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air
and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the
northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant 

Environment—international agreements: 

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution 

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea 

Geography—note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and
Asia; second-largest country in Europe 


Population: 49,811,174 (July 1999 est.) 

Age structure: 

0-14 years: 18% (male 4,690,318; female 4,498,239) 

15-64 years: 68% (male 16,136,296; female 17,572,011) 

65 years and over: 14% (male 2,251,664; female 4,662,646) (1999 est.) 

Population growth rate: -0.62% (1999 est.) 

Birth rate: 9.54 births/1,000 population (1999 est.) 

Death rate: 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.) 

Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.) 

Sex ratio: 

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female 

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 

65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female 
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