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НазваUkraine (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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U k r a i n e





Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and



Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E


Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States




total: 603,700 sq km


land: 603,700 sq km


water: 0 sq km


Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Texas


Land boundaries:


total: 4,558 km


border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland

428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km,

Slovakia 90 km


Coastline: 2,782 km


Maritime claims:


continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


territorial sea: 12 nm


Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern

Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in

west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool

along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the

greater part of the country, hot in the south


Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and

plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and

in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south


Elevation extremes:


lowest point: Black Sea 0 m


highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m


Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,

sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber


Land use:


arable land: 58%


permanent crops: 2%


permanent pastures: 13%


forests and woodland: 18%


other: 9% (1993 est.)


Irrigated land: 26,050 sq km (1993 est.)


Natural hazards: NA


Environment—current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air

and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the

northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant


Environment—international agreements:


party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air

Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,

Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone

Layer Protection, Ship Pollution


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,

Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea


Geography—note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and

Asia; second-largest country in Europe




Population: 49,811,174 (July 1999 est.)


Age structure:


0-14 years: 18% (male 4,690,318; female 4,498,239)


15-64 years: 68% (male 16,136,296; female 17,572,011)


65 years and over: 14% (male 2,251,664; female 4,662,646) (1999 est.)


Population growth rate: -0.62% (1999 est.)


Birth rate: 9.54 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)


Death rate: 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)


Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)


Sex ratio:


at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female

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