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НазваUnited Nations (UN) (реферат)
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United Nations (UN)

In the past the third constant of Dutch foreign policy,
'internationalist idealism' primarily took the form of the promotion of
international law. More recently it has also surfaced in foreign policy
statements and documents in the form of role-conceptions such as
'example' and 'developer': protecting human rights abroad and providing
aid to developing countries. These activities are pursued primarily, but
not exclusively, within the context of the UN. The peace-keeping
missions of that organisation have also been supported either
financially or militarily (as most recently in what was formerly
Yugoslavia), but that has not been the most conspicuous Dutch
contribution to the UN.

As a result of its historical links to the Boers in South Africa, the
Netherlands voted in 1961 against expelling the country from the UN for
its policy of apartheid, but subsequently the Dutch have become ever
more critical of South Africa. Since 1963 the Netherlands has complied
with a non-mandatory embargo on military supplies to South Africa, and
as a temporary member of the Security Council from 1983 to 1985 it took
the initiative for a resolution boycotting weapons made in South Africa.
The Dutch have also offered financial assistance to victims of
apartheid. The Netherlands has similarly sought to put pressure on South
Africa through the EC.

It is not only in South Africa that the Netherlands has supported the
cause of human rights. The Dutch have always advocated the appointment
of a UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. In terms of governmental
policy, this support is to a degree symbolized in the person of the
Foreign Secretary, Max van der Stoel (1973-7, 1981—2). Streets have been
named after him in Greece and Eastern Europe because of his support for
democrats and dissidents when these countries were still ruled

In the absence of objective and quantifiable indicators it is, however,
difficult to gauge the importance of human rights in Dutch foreign
policy compared with that of other countries. The Dutch preoccupation
with development aid lends itself more readily to cross-national
comparisons. Whether out of a sense of guilt about its colonial past, or
as a modern extension of the churches' missionary work, the Dutch
attitude towards developing countries borders on tiers-mondisme. The
importance of development aid is probably the one aspect of foreign
policy on which all major parties are most in agreement. Political
disagreement is largely confined to which criteria should be used to
select countries for bilateral aid. Constant among these criteria are
the degree of poverty, the degree to which the indigenous government
puts in an effort of its own, and the existence of an historic
responsibility (i.e., to former colonies such as Indonesia and Surinam).
More controversial are criteria such as respect for human rights
(especially when it conflicts with the historic responsibility for
former colonies turned dictatorial), or the degree to which Dutch
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