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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваUnited Nations (UN) (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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United Nations (UN)


In the past the third constant of Dutch foreign policy,

'internationalist idealism' primarily took the form of the promotion of

international law. More recently it has also surfaced in foreign policy

statements and documents in the form of role-conceptions such as

'example' and 'developer': protecting human rights abroad and providing

aid to developing countries. These activities are pursued primarily, but

not exclusively, within the context of the UN. The peace-keeping

missions of that organisation have also been supported either

financially or militarily (as most recently in what was formerly

Yugoslavia), but that has not been the most conspicuous Dutch

contribution to the UN.


As a result of its historical links to the Boers in South Africa, the

Netherlands voted in 1961 against expelling the country from the UN for

its policy of apartheid, but subsequently the Dutch have become ever

more critical of South Africa. Since 1963 the Netherlands has complied

with a non-mandatory embargo on military supplies to South Africa, and

as a temporary member of the Security Council from 1983 to 1985 it took

the initiative for a resolution boycotting weapons made in South Africa.

The Dutch have also offered financial assistance to victims of

apartheid. The Netherlands has similarly sought to put pressure on South

Africa through the EC.


It is not only in South Africa that the Netherlands has supported the

cause of human rights. The Dutch have always advocated the appointment

of a UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. In terms of governmental

policy, this support is to a degree symbolized in the person of the

Foreign Secretary, Max van der Stoel (1973-7, 1981—2). Streets have been

named after him in Greece and Eastern Europe because of his support for

democrats and dissidents when these countries were still ruled



In the absence of objective and quantifiable indicators it is, however,

difficult to gauge the importance of human rights in Dutch foreign

policy compared with that of other countries. The Dutch preoccupation

with development aid lends itself more readily to cross-national

comparisons. Whether out of a sense of guilt about its colonial past, or

as a modern extension of the churches' missionary work, the Dutch

attitude towards developing countries borders on tiers-mondisme. The

importance of development aid is probably the one aspect of foreign

policy on which all major parties are most in agreement. Political

disagreement is largely confined to which criteria should be used to

select countries for bilateral aid. Constant among these criteria are

the degree of poverty, the degree to which the indigenous government

puts in an effort of its own, and the existence of an historic

responsibility (i.e., to former colonies such as Indonesia and Surinam).

More controversial are criteria such as respect for human rights

(especially when it conflicts with the historic responsibility for

former colonies turned dictatorial), or the degree to which Dutch

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