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НазваUS Style and design (20th century) - Pop Art, Commercial Photography (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

US Style and design (20th century) – 

Pop Art,  Commercial Photography


The twentieth century is the first century of self-conscious, total
design at every level of our living  and environment. Care and vision in
application of design have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern
life – from our kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops,
from our clothes and domestic objects, to the packaging of pocket
calculators or the structuring of plastic dining chairs.

Although the word has been used since at least the fifteenth century,
when Italian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of
line possessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is an
industrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction of
mass-production, the people who invented ideas for objects became
separated from the people who made them who, again, were separated from
the people who sold them. The industrial revolution also created the
concept of the market. Personal need, or the whims of a patron, were
replaced by a more abstract demand: the tastes of a large, amorphous
body of consumers.

The modern designer came into being as an intermediary between industry
and the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry to the
mass market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, but to make
them more appealing and commercially successful, certainly. Commercial
success is the touchstone of achievement in design, although designers
in different cultures have often taken different views as to how the
achievement is measured or the success validated.

So, design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style
in the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by
various new forces, including social and economic factors and certain
aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer
design, web design, advertisement design ( for example consumer-product
branding design) and the whole fashion of different types of ad, colors
and so on. 

The late fifties saw the birth of advertising  as we know it today, a
high-powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing
techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional
jargon of product packaging, market research, corporate images and house

The POP Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of
late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In
Britain, in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake,
Allen Jones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and
other formalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans to
Campbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons, fast food, advertising hoardings
and pin-ups.

Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injected
a new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which were
its natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction and the
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