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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваUS Style and design (20th century) - Pop Art, Commercial Photography (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


US Style and design (20th century) –


Pop Art, Commercial Photography



The twentieth century is the first century of self-conscious, total

design at every level of our living and environment. Care and vision in

application of design have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern

life – from our kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops,

from our clothes and domestic objects, to the packaging of pocket

calculators or the structuring of plastic dining chairs.


Although the word has been used since at least the fifteenth century,

when Italian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of

line possessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is an

industrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction of

mass-production, the people who invented ideas for objects became

separated from the people who made them who, again, were separated from

the people who sold them. The industrial revolution also created the

concept of the market. Personal need, or the whims of a patron, were

replaced by a more abstract demand: the tastes of a large, amorphous

body of consumers.


The modern designer came into being as an intermediary between industry

and the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry to the

mass market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, but to make

them more appealing and commercially successful, certainly. Commercial

success is the touchstone of achievement in design, although designers

in different cultures have often taken different views as to how the

achievement is measured or the success validated.


So, design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style

in the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by

various new forces, including social and economic factors and certain

aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer

design, web design, advertisement design ( for example consumer-product

branding design) and the whole fashion of different types of ad, colors

and so on.


The late fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, a

high-powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing

techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional

jargon of product packaging, market research, corporate images and house



The POP Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of

late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In

Britain, in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake,

Allen Jones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and

other formalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans to

Campbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons, fast food, advertising hoardings

and pin-ups.


Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injected

a new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which were

its natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction and the

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