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Реферат на тему:

 

WINDSOR CASTLE

 

Windsor Castle is the oldest royal residence to have remained in

continuous use by the monarchs of Britain and is in many ways an

architectural epitome of the history of the nation. Its skyline of

battlements, turrets and the great Round Tower is instantly recognised

throughout the world. The Castle covers an area of nearly thirteen

acres and contains, as well as a royal palace, a magnificent collegiate

church and the homes or workplaces of a large number of people

,including the Constable and Governor of the Castle, the Military

Knights of Windsor and their families, etc.

 

The Castle was founded by William the Conqueror c. 1080 and was

conceived as one of a chain of fortifications built as a defensive ring

round London.

 

Norman castles were built to a standard plan with an artificial

earthen mound supporting a tower or keep, the entrance to which was

protected by an outer fenced courtyard or baily. Windsor is the most

notable example of a particularly distinctive version of this basic plan

developed for use on a ridge site. It comprises a central mote with

a large bialy to either side of it rather than just on one side as was

more than usual.

 

As first built, the Castle was entirely defensive, constructed of earth

and timber, but easy access from London and the proximity of the Castle

to the old royal hunting forest to the south soon recommended it as a

royal residence. Henry I is known to have had domestic quarterswithin

the castle as early as 1110 and Henry converted the Castle into a

palace. He built two separate sets of royal apartments within the

fortified enclosure: a public or official state residence in the Lower

Ward, with a hall where he could entertain his court and the barons

on great occasions, and a smaller private residence on the North side of

the Upper Ward for the exclusive occupation of himself and his family.

 

Henry II was a great builder at all his residences. He began to replace

the old timber outer walls of the Upper Ward with a hard heath stone

found ten miles south of Windsor. The basic curtain wall round the Upper

Ward, much modified by later alterations and improvements, dates from

Henry II’s time, as does the old part of the stone keep, known as the

Round Tower , on top of William’s the Conqueror’s mote. The

reconstruction of the curtain wall round the Lower Ward was completed

over the next sixty years. The well-preserved section visible from the

High street with its three half-round towers was built by Henry III in

the 1220s.He took a keen personal interest in all his projects and

carried out extensive works at Windsor. In his time it became one of the

three principal royal palaces alongside those at Westminster and

Winchester. He rebuilt Henry II’s apartments in the Lower Ward and

added there a large new chapel, all forming a coherently planned

layout round a courtyard with a cloister; parts survive embedded in

later structures in the Lower Ward. He also further improved the

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