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НазваWindsor castle(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Windsor Castle is the oldest royal residence to have remained in
continuous use by the  monarchs  of Britain and is in many ways an
architectural epitome  of the history of the nation. Its skyline of
battlements, turrets and the great Round Tower is instantly recognised
throughout the world. The Castle covers an area of nearly  thirteen
acres and contains, as well as a royal palace, a magnificent collegiate 
church  and the homes or workplaces of a large number of people
,including the Constable and  Governor of the Castle, the Military
Knights of Windsor and their families, etc. 

The Castle was founded by William the Conqueror  c. 1080 and was
conceived as one of a chain of fortifications built as a defensive ring
round London.

Norman castles  were built to a standard plan  with an artificial
earthen   mound supporting a tower or keep, the entrance to which was
protected by an outer fenced courtyard or baily. Windsor is the most
notable example of a particularly distinctive version of this basic plan
 developed   for use  on a ridge site. It comprises a central mote with 
a large bialy to either side of it rather than just on  one side as was
more than usual.

As first built, the Castle was entirely  defensive, constructed of earth
and timber, but easy access from London and the proximity of the Castle
to the old royal hunting forest   to the south soon recommended it as a
royal residence. Henry I is known to have  had domestic quarterswithin
the castle as early as 1110  and Henry converted the Castle into a
palace. He built two separate  sets of royal apartments within the
fortified enclosure: a public or official state residence in the Lower
Ward,  with a hall  where he could entertain his court  and the barons
on great occasions, and a smaller private residence on the North side of
the Upper Ward for the exclusive occupation of himself and his family.

Henry II was a great builder at  all his residences. He began to replace
the old timber outer walls  of the Upper Ward with a hard heath stone
found ten miles south of Windsor. The basic curtain wall round the Upper
Ward, much modified by later alterations and improvements, dates from
Henry II’s time, as does the old part of the stone keep, known as the
Round Tower , on top of William’s the Conqueror’s mote. The
reconstruction of the curtain wall round the Lower Ward was completed
over the next sixty years. The well-preserved section visible from the
High street with its three half-round towers was built by   Henry III in
the 1220s.He took a keen personal interest in all his projects  and
carried out extensive works at Windsor. In his time it became one of the
three principal    royal  palaces alongside those at Westminster   and
Winchester.  He rebuilt Henry II’s  apartments in the Lower Ward   and
added there  a large new chapel, all forming a  coherently planned 
layout round  a  courtyard   with a cloister; parts survive embedded in
later structures in the Lower  Ward. He also   further improved the
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