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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваOscar Fingal O\'Flahertie Wills Wilde (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde





Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin into the

family of a distinguished Irish surgeon and educated at Dublin and

Oxford Universities. His mother "was a writer of poetry and prose. Under

the influence of John Ruskin, Wilde joined the Aesthetic Movement and

soon became its leader. He made himself the apostle of "art for art's

sake" and of the cult of beauty. In 1882 he made a triumphant tour of

the United States lecturing on the Aesthetic Movement in England.


The next ten years saw the appearance of all his major works. They

include fairy-tales: The Happy Prince (1888), A House of Pomegranates

(1891), stories: Lord Arthur Savile's Crime (1891), the novel The

Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), several sparkling comedies, up to now

repeatedly produced all over the world: Lady Windermere's Fan (1893), A

Woman of No Importance (1894), An Ideal Husband (1895), The Importance

of Being Earnest (1895). Oscar Wilde also wrote poems, political and

literary essays (The Soul of Man under Socialism, Intentions, 1891) and

various occasional pieces on history, drama and painting. He had the

reputation of a brilliant society wit. Wilde's splendid literary career

and social position suddenly collapsed when in 1895 he was sentenced to

a two-years' term of imprisonment for immoral practices. After his

release he lived in obscurity in France. In 1898 he published his

best-known poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol.


An abridged version of his prose confession bearing the Latin name of De

Profundis (Out of the Depths) was printed posthumously, its full text

only to appear as late as 1962. The writer's aesthetic views are

disclosed in the three essays of Intentions (The Decay of Lying, The

Critic as an Artist, and Pen, Pencil and Poison) and, in his most

brilliantly paradoxical style, in the famous preface to Dorian Gray:


The artist is the creator of beautiful things.


To reveal art and conceal the artist is art's aim...


They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only Beauty.


There is no such thing as moral or immoral book.


Books are well written, or badly written. That is all.


All art is quite useless.


Fortunately, Oscar Wilde's work disproves his own statements, thus

adding another paradox to his life and work.


Irish wit, poet, and dramatist whose reputation rests on his comic

masterpieces Lady Windermere's Fan (1892) and The Importance of Being

Earnest (1895). He was a spokesman for the late 19th-century Aesthetic

movement in England, which advocated art for art's sake; and he was the

object of celebrated civil and criminal suits involving homosexuality

and ending in his imprisonment (1895-97).


Wilde was born of professional and literary parents. His father, Sir

William Wilde, was Ireland's leading ear and eye surgeon, who also

published books on archaeology, folklore, and the satirist Jonathan

Swift; his mother was a revolutionary poet and an authority on Celtic

myth and folklore.


After attending Portora Royal School, Enniskillen (1864-71), Wilde went,

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