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НазваHerbert George Wells (1866-1946) (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Herbert George Wells (1866-1946)


English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian, whose science

fiction stories have been filmed many times. Wells's best known works

are THE TIME MACHINE (1895), one of the first modern science fiction

stories, THE INVISIBLE MAN (1897), and THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898).

Wells wrote over a hundred of books, about fifty of them novels.


"No one would have believed, in the last years of the nineteenth

century, that human affairs were being watched keenly and closely by

intelligences greater than man's and yet as mortal as his own; that as

men busied themselves about their affairs they were scrutinized and

studied, perhaps almost as narrowly as a man with a microscope might

scrutinize the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of

water." (from War of the Worlds)


Along with George Orwell's Nineteen-Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxley's

Brave New World, which was a pessimistic answer to scientific optimism,

Wells's novels are among the classics of science-fiction. Later Wells's

romantic and enthusiastic conception of technology turned more doubtful.

His bitter side is seen early in the novel BOON (1915), which was a

parody of Henry James.


Herbert George Wells was born in Bromley, Kent. His father was a

shopkeeper and a professional cricketer until he broke his leg. In his

early childhood Wells developed love for literature. His mother served

from time to time as a housekeeper at the nearby estate of Uppark, and

young Wells studied books in the library secretly. When his father's

business failed, Wells was apprenticed like his brothers to a draper. He

spent the years between 1880 and 1883 in Windsor and Southsea, and later

recorded them in KIPPS (1905). In the story Arthur Kipps is raised by

his aunt and uncle. Kipps is also apprenticed to a draper. After

learning that he has been left a fortune, Kipps enters the upper-class

society, which Wells describes with sharp social criticism.


In 1883 Wells became a teacher/pupil at Midhurst Grammar School. He

obtained a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London and

studied there biology under T.H. Huxley. However, his interest faltered

and in 1887 he left without a degree. He taught in private schools for

four years, not taking his B.S. degree until 1890. Next year he settled

in London, married his cousin Isabel and continued his career as a

teacher in a correspondence college. From 1893 Wells became a full-time



Wells left Isabel for one of his brightest students, Amy Catherine, whom

he married in 1895. As a novelist Wells made his debut with The Time

Machine, a parody of English class division. The narrator is Hillyer,

who discusses with his friends about theories of time travel. A week

later their host has an incredible story to tell - he has returned from

the year 802701. The Time Traveler had found two people: the Eloi, weak

and little, who live above ground in a seemingly Edenic paradise, and

the Morlocks, bestial creatures that live below ground, who eat the

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