A SCIENTIST OF GENIUS
A SCIENTIST OF GENIUS
Mykola Pirogov was called a scientist of genius even in his lifetime.
His career as a researcher, excellent surgeon and clinician was
tempestuous. At 18, he graduated from Moscow University; at 22, he
became a Doctor of Science; at 26, he was a Professor at Derpt (now
Tartu) University, one of the largest in Europe, and at 30, he headed
Russia's first field surgery clinic. During his first 30 or so years in
surgery, he started a new trend in the study of human anatomy and
physiology, based on fundamentally novel methods. His major research
works in this field contributed enormously to world science. To this
day, Pirogov's methods are among the basic methods in the study and
Pirogov's life was dedicated to people. He was a field surgeon during
four wars (in the Caucasus in 1847, in the Crimea in 1854, in the
Franco-Prussian war to 1870, and in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877),
selflessly saving the lives of the wounded in the most difficult of
He in fact created a new medical science, field surgery, and suggested
new, rational principles for the grouping, distribution and evacuation
pf the wounded. His, work, "Fundamentals of Field Surgery" (1864), had
soon become a reference book for field surgeons in all countries.
He formulated some of tile most important principles of treating gunshot
wounds, fractures, shock and wound infections, and developed the most
ingenious methods of performing operations.
He was also the First to apply, on a large scale, plaster of Paris
bandages in field conditions (in Sevastopol, during the Crimean war),
which was a revolution in field surgery. Almost 90 years later, during
the Great Patriotic War, the Pirogov platter of Paris was still widely
used-during the heroic defence of Sevastopol, and on all other fronts,
helping save the lives, of many thousands of soldiers.
Pirogov had a phenomenal capacity for work, which enabled him to do a
great deal in all spheres of surgery. He also developed classical,
world-acknowledged methods of operations and treatment in ophthalmology,
urology, and oilier fields. Many of those methods are applied even now,
and one of them, the so-called Pirogov amputation (a
conservative-restorative operation on the extremities), marked the
beginning of esteoplasty, giving a powerful impetus to the development
of reconstructive surgery.
Genuinely compassionate with the sick and the wounded, Pirogov did all
his efforts to find ways of relieving their suffering lie was among the
first to realize the importance of general anesthesia and to apply
narcosis, doing all he could towards its introduction into surgery. He
firmly believed that narcosis not only relieved pain, but created the
optimum conditions for keeping up the patient's vital functions during
Питання (questions) до тексту “Геніальний вчений”
What was Mykola Pirogov? What was his career in his yoth?
What new trend did Pirogov start in surgery?