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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваA scientist of genius (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Mykola Pirogov was called a scientist of genius even in his lifetime.

His career as a researcher, excellent surgeon and clinician was

tempestuous. At 18, he graduated from Moscow University; at 22, he

became a Doctor of Science; at 26, he was a Professor at Derpt (now

Tartu) University, one of the largest in Europe, and at 30, he headed

Russia's first field surgery clinic. During his first 30 or so years in

surgery, he started a new trend in the study of human anatomy and

physiology, based on fundamentally novel methods. His major research

works in this field contributed enormously to world science. To this

day, Pirogov's methods are among the basic methods in the study and

leaching anatomy.


Pirogov's life was dedicated to people. He was a field surgeon during

four wars (in the Caucasus in 1847, in the Crimea in 1854, in the

Franco-Prussian war to 1870, and in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877),

selflessly saving the lives of the wounded in the most difficult of



He in fact created a new medical science, field surgery, and suggested

new, rational principles for the grouping, distribution and evacuation

pf the wounded. His, work, "Fundamentals of Field Surgery" (1864), had

soon become a reference book for field surgeons in all countries.


He formulated some of tile most important principles of treating gunshot

wounds, fractures, shock and wound infections, and developed the most

ingenious methods of performing operations.


He was also the First to apply, on a large scale, plaster of Paris

bandages in field conditions (in Sevastopol, during the Crimean war),

which was a revolution in field surgery. Almost 90 years later, during

the Great Patriotic War, the Pirogov platter of Paris was still widely

used-during the heroic defence of Sevastopol, and on all other fronts,

helping save the lives, of many thousands of soldiers.


Pirogov had a phenomenal capacity for work, which enabled him to do a

great deal in all spheres of surgery. He also developed classical,

world-acknowledged methods of operations and treatment in ophthalmology,

urology, and oilier fields. Many of those methods are applied even now,

and one of them, the so-called Pirogov amputation (a

conservative-restorative operation on the extremities), marked the

beginning of esteoplasty, giving a powerful impetus to the development

of reconstructive surgery.


Genuinely compassionate with the sick and the wounded, Pirogov did all

his efforts to find ways of relieving their suffering lie was among the

first to realize the importance of general anesthesia and to apply

narcosis, doing all he could towards its introduction into surgery. He

firmly believed that narcosis not only relieved pain, but created the

optimum conditions for keeping up the patient's vital functions during

an operation.


Питання (questions) до тексту “Геніальний вчений”


What was Mykola Pirogov? What was his career in his yoth?


What new trend did Pirogov start in surgery?

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