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НазваSean O\'Casey (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:

Sean O'Casey

Sean O'Casey, a child of the Dublin slums, was born in 1880 to a
Protestant family. He had a grim childhood of poverty, poor eyesight,
and ill health. Although a chronic eye disease forced him to stay away
from school because of his eye treatments, his passion for learning
stayed with him. In his youth he read widely in the classics and in the
Bible, and at 84 he was learning through radio sessions of the Schools
Program of the British Broadcasting Corporation.

His poor eyesight plagued him all his life, which he lived every day
with the increasing threat of total blindness. As a child, he developed
an ulcerated cornea in his left eye, the effects of which left his
vision dim and filmy. His right eye took on the strain of his work and
was also periodically affected. Several times a day he had to sponge his
eyes with water as hot as he could bear in order to relieve the
condition that severely hampered his vision.

Sean O'Casey was an idealist with a strong sense of justice that marked
his life and work. Early in his adult life he was caught up in the
fervor of the Gaelic League and in the amateur theatre movement. O'Casey
claimed he found his "faith" in the socialist ideals of Jim Larkin’s
crusade for the Irish working class. (The general strike of 1913 began
the first demands for Irish liberation.)

In his early forties, while continuing to support himself as a laborer,
we wrote, in quick succession three realistic plays about the slums of
Dublin. The Shadow of a Gunman, Juno and the Paycock, and The Plough and
the Stars were performed at the Abbey Theatre in 1923, 1924, and 1926
respectively. The first takes up the terrors of the Black and Tans in
Dublin. The second has a Civil War theme, and the last is focused on the
Irish Citizen Army and the Easter Rising.

These plays provoked public outcry mainly because of O'Casey's
consistent refusal to glorify the violence of the nationalist movement,
instead mocking the heroics of war and presenting the theme that dead
heroes were far outnumbered by dead innocent people.

Frank O'Connor, in A Short History of Irish Literature: A Backward Look,
says that what unifies these plavs and sets them apart from O'Casey's
later works is "the bitter recognition that while the men dream, drink,
drivel, dress up and go play-acting, some woman with as much brains and
far more industry sacrifices herself to keep the little spark of human
life from going out altogether."

O'Casey followed these plays of realism with The Silver Tassie, which
was submitted to the Abbey Theatre in 1927. It was a play considered
more symbolic and expressionistic than the previous Abbey plays. While
three acts were in typical lively O'Casey style, the second act included
chants and dance movement. The Silver Tassie was labeled a tragicomedy
based on the cruel horrors of World War I. It showed the price which the
common people have to pay for the stupidities of war. It was rejected
for the Abbey Theatre by its directors, and in a formal letter from
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