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НазваGeoffrey Chaucer (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Geoffrey  Chaucer


English poet, born in London between 1340 and 1345; died there, 25
October, 1400. 

John Chaucer, a vintner and citizen of London, married Agnes, heiress of
one Hamo de Copton, the city moneyer, and owned the house in Upper
Thames Street, Dowgate Hill (a site covered now by the arrival platform
of Cannon Street Station), where his son Geoffrey was born. That his
birth was not in 1328, hitherto the accepted date, is fully proved
(Furnivall in The Academy, 8 Dec., 1888, 12 Dec., 1887). 

John Chaucer was connected with the Court, and once saw Flanders in the
royal train. Geoffrey was educated well, but whether he was entered at
either university remains unknown. He figures by name from the year
1357, presumably in the capacity of a page, in the household books of
the Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, wife of Prince Lionel, third son of King
Edward III (Bond in Fornightly Review, VI, 28 Aug., 1873). The lad
followed this prince to France, serving through the final and futile
Edwardian invasion, which ended in the Peace of Bretigny (1360), and was
taken prisoner at "Retters", identified by unwary biographers as Retiers
near Rennes, but by Skeat as Rethel near Reims, a place mentioned by
Froissart in his account of this very campaign. Thence Chaucer was
ransomed by the king, who, when the Lady Elizabeth died, took over her
page and later (1367) pensioned him for life. Chaucer was married before
1374; probably the Philippa Chaucer named in the queen's grant of 1366
was then Geoffrey Chaucer's wife (Lounsbury, Studies in Chaucer, I,
95-7). It seems clear that he could not have been happy in his marriage
(Hales in Dict. Nat. Biog., X, 157). He had two sons and a daughter, if
not other children. Gascoigne tells us that his contemporary, Thomas
Chaucer was the poet's son. This statement, long discredited, is now
fully endorsed by the best authorities (Hales in Athenaeum, 31 March,
1888; Skeat, ibid., 27 Jan.1900). Thomas Chaucer's mother was Philippa
Roet, daughter of Sir Paon or Payne de Roet Guienne king at arms. Roet
had another daughter, Catherine, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford, who was for
Gaunt's mistress and eventually his third wife. Thus Chaucer became the
brother-in-law of the great duke, who from 1368 onwards had been his
most powerful patron. Thomas Chaucer (b. about 1367; d. 1434), later of
Woodstock and Ewelme, became chief butler to four sovereign, as well as
Speaker of the House of Commons (in 1414). His sister Elizabeth (b.1365)
at sixteen entered Barking Abbey as a novice, John of Gaunt providing
fifty pounds as her religious dowry. Lewis Chaucer, the "litel sonne
Lowys", for whom the "Astrolale" was written, is supposed to have died
in childhood. From about his twenty-sixth year Chaucer was frequently
employed on important diplomatic missions; the year 1372-3 marks the
turning point of his literary life, for then he was sent to Italy;
circumstances make it extremely probable that either in Florence or at
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