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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваJohn Constable (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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John Constable


John Constable, the greatest of English landscape painters, came from

the Suffolk, and it was from the Suffolk landscape that he drew his

inspiration. Constable's affection for nature was great and his mastery

to show the much loved English scene reached its marvelous peak. He

always attempted to depict the transient effects of nature: light,

clouds and rain.


Constable was an acute observer of nature and had a romantic passion for

light. Constable's method of painting was nearest to Impressionism. His

treatment of skies is especially notable. No one has painted cloud

effects so truthfully and with so much skill.


John Constable was one of the major European landscape artists of the

XIX century, whose art was admired by Delacroix and Gericault and

influenced the masters of Barbizon and even the Impressionists, although

he did not achieved much fame during his lifetime in England, his own

country. John Constable was born in East Bergholt, Suffolk, on 11 June

1776, the fourth child and second son of Ann and Golding Constable. His

father was a prosperous local corn merchant who inherited his business

from an uncle in 1764. Constable was educated at Dedham Grammar School,

where he distinguished himself more by his draughtsmanship than his

scholarship. In 1793 his father decided to train him as a miller and,

consequently, Constable spent a year working on the family mill, which

helped him to determine his course of life: he would be an artist.


In 1796-1798 he took lessons from John Thomas Smith and later

from George Frost, who supported his love of landscape painting and

encouraged him to study Gainsborough's works. In 1700 he entered the

Royal Academy Schools. As a student he copied Old Master landscapes,

especially those of Jacob van Ruisdael. Though deeply impressed by the

work of Claude Lorrain and the watercolours of Thomas Girtin, Constable

believed the actual study of nature was more important than any artistic

model. He refused to "learn the truth second-hand". To a greater degree

than any other artist before him, Constable based his paintings on

precisely drawn sketches made directly from nature. His most notable

picture of his early works are Dedham Vale (1802), 'A Church Porch' (The

Church Porch, East Bergholt) (1809), Dedham Vale: Morning (1811),

Landscape: Boys Fishing (1813), Boatbuilding (1814), Wivenhoe Park

(1816), Weymouth Bay (1816). Flatford Mill (1817) was his last work of

the period, created en plein-air.


He married Maria Bicknell in 1816 and they settled in London.

After 1816 he changed the method of his work turning away from realistic

agrarian landscapes such as Landscape: Ploughing Scene in Suffolk (A

Summerland) (1814). Now he was working mostly in his studio in London

and had to work out the image from his memory, starting each picture

from a full-size sketch. The sketches enabled his memory to develop

gradually until everything he could remember about the scene was

satisfactorily suggested. At this point he would begin the finished

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