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НазваNorthern Ireland (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
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Реферат на тему:

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is the smallest of the Home Nations of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland lies in
the north-east of the island of Ireland. It covers 14,139 square
kilometres (5,459 square miles), and has a population of 1,685,000
(April 2001). The capital is Belfast.

Northern Ireland was created in 1921 as a home-rule political entity,
under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, along with the nominal state
of Southern Ireland, which was superseded almost immediately after its
creation by the Irish Free State. When the latter achieved independence,
Northern Ireland – under the procedures laid out in the Anglo-Irish
Treaty, 1921 – declined to join, and so remained part of the United
Kingdom. The majority of the population is unionist and wishes to remain
part of the United Kingdom, but a significant minority, known as the
nationalists, want a united Ireland. The clashes between both sets of
identity, and allegations of discrimination against nationalists by
unionists, produced a violent struggle by minorities within both
communities that ran from the late 1960s to the early 1990s and was
known as The Troubles. As a consequence, self-government for Northern
Ireland was suspended in 1972. Since the mid-1990s, the main
paramilitary groups have observed an uneasy ceasefire. Following
negotiations, the Belfast Agreement of 1998 provides for an elected
Northern Ireland Assembly and a 'power-sharing' Northern Ireland
Executive comprising representaives of all the main parties.

There is no longer any official Flag of Northern Ireland, as the 'Red
Hand Flag' was abolished along with the Parliament of Northern Ireland
in 1972. Unionists tend to use the Union flag and sometimes the Red Hand
Flag, while Nationalists typically use the Flag of Ireland. Both sides
also occasionally use the flags belonging to their political parties and
other secular and religious organizations they belong to.[1]
( Some groups, including
the Irish Rugby Football Union have used the Flag of St. Patrick as a
symbol of Ireland which lacks the same nationalist or unionist
connotations, but even this is felt by some to be a loyalist flag, and
no universally acceptable symbol has yet been found. Similarly, there is
no longer a national anthem; A Londonderry Air was the national anthem.

With its improved international reputation, Northern Ireland has
recently witnessed rising numbers of tourists who come to appreciate the
area's unique heritage. Attractions include cultural festivals, musical
and artistic traditions, countryside and geographical sites of interest,
pubs, welcoming hospitality and sports (especially golf and fishing).

Northern Ireland was covered by the ice sheet for most of the last ice
age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen
in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh,
Antrim and particularly Down. The centrepiece of Northern Ireland's
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