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НазваFolk art frом Ukraine (реферат)
Авторdimich
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

 

FOLK ART FRОМ UKRAINE

 

Ukrainian folk art has centuries-old traditions. Ukrainian weavers,

painters, wood-carvers, potters, carpet-makers and embroideresses are

well-known all over the Ukraine and abroad. Polk art in Ukraine is rich

in forms and design and varies from region to region. In Ukraine there

are a number of districts where folk arte and handicrafts have a

distinctly local character. The works of the craftsmen of the Dnieper

Basin, of Chernigiv Polissia and of the Hutsul folk masters are quite

different, beautiful in their own way and popular.

 

Folk art is closely connected with the customs of the people. The

endurance of tradition is illustrated by customs and rituals which are

still alive though their original meaning may be forgotten. The pisanka

Easter egg is still painted and the wedding loaf is still baked, but not

everybody knows that they are parts of ancient pagan cults.

 

There are many permanent forms and motifs, connected with these ancient

cults, in Ukrainian folk art. A moat common ornamental motif is the sun

sign which may be a simple circle, one may come across it in

wood-carving, in pisanka (Easter egg), in Hutsul metalware, on

embroidered towels (rushniks). The representations of horses and birds

are also very popular in Ukrainian traditional folk arts and

handicrafts. The old-time belief was that the bird served as a symbol of

peace and prosperity. The horse symbol was used to protect from the evil

eye.

 

Various kinds of artistic wood-carving have been known in Ukrainian

wood-lands since ancient times, especially in the foothills of the

Carpathians. Here, in many families the working of wood is a craft

handed down from generation to generation, the Shkribliaks and the

Korpaniuke from the village of Yavoriv, Ivano-Frankivsk Region are

especially well-known. Hundreds of master carvers have participated in

the decoration of various modern buildings. Thus, Hutsul wood-carvers

decorated several restaurants in Ivano-Frankivsk and Yaremcha.

 

In Ukraine the art of metal-working reached its highwater mark as early

as the tenth-twelfth centuries. But at that time it was located in

towns. Only at the end of the eighteenth century the craft spread to the

countryside. There appeared many craftsmen in the left-Bank regions,

Podillia and the Eastern Carpathians producing jewellery: rings,

earrings, ornamental buttons and dukachi necklets of gold and silver

coins. Hutsul folk craftsmen living in the Carpathian foothills continue

to use the traditional metal-working techniques that were used in the

18-th century to make such things as knives, forester1s axes, pin and

needle cases, tobacco pipes, timberboxes, chains, buttons, crosses and

so on.

 

The Ukrainians’ top popular arts and handicrafts have long been

embroidery, weaving and making of rugs and carpets. In olden days every

peasant woman knew how to embroider and do needlework. In fact she was

taught that from childhood. In Ukraine embroidery was used to ornament

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