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НазваFolk art frом Ukraine (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Ukrainian folk art has centuries-old traditions. Ukrainian weavers,
painters, wood-carvers, potters, carpet-makers and embroideresses are
well-known all over the Ukraine and abroad. Polk art in Ukraine is rich
in forms and design and varies from region to region. In Ukraine there
are a number of districts where folk arte and handicrafts have a
distinctly local character. The works of the craftsmen of the Dnieper
Basin, of Chernigiv Polissia and of the Hutsul folk masters are quite
different, beautiful in their own way and popular.

Folk art is closely connected with the customs of the people. The
endurance of tradition is illustrated by customs and rituals which are
still alive though their original meaning may be forgotten. The pisanka
Easter egg is still painted and the wedding loaf is still baked, but not
everybody knows that they are parts of ancient pagan cults.

There are many permanent forms and motifs, connected with these ancient
cults, in Ukrainian folk art. A moat common ornamental motif is the sun
sign which may be a simple circle, one may come across it in
wood-carving, in pisanka (Easter egg), in Hutsul metalware, on
embroidered towels (rushniks). The representations of horses and birds
are also very popular in Ukrainian traditional folk arts and
handicrafts. The old-time belief was that the bird served as a symbol of
peace and prosperity. The horse symbol was used to protect from the evil

Various kinds of artistic wood-carving have been known in Ukrainian
wood-lands since ancient times, especially in the foothills of the
Carpathians. Here, in many families the working of wood is a craft
handed down from generation to generation, the Shkribliaks and the
Korpaniuke from the village of Yavoriv, Ivano-Frankivsk Region are
especially well-known. Hundreds of master carvers have participated in
the decoration of various modern buildings. Thus, Hutsul wood-carvers
decorated several restaurants in Ivano-Frankivsk and Yaremcha.

In Ukraine the art of metal-working reached its highwater mark as early
as the tenth-twelfth centuries. But at that time it was located in
towns. Only at the end of the eighteenth century the craft spread to the
countryside. There appeared many craftsmen in the left-Bank regions,
Podillia and the Eastern Carpathians producing jewellery: rings,
earrings, ornamental buttons and dukachi necklets of gold and silver
coins. Hutsul folk craftsmen living in the Carpathian foothills continue
to use the traditional metal-working techniques that were used in the
18-th century to make such things as knives, forester1s axes, pin and
needle cases, tobacco pipes, timberboxes, chains, buttons, crosses and
so on.

The Ukrainians’ top popular arts and handicrafts have long been
embroidery, weaving and making of rugs and carpets. In olden days every
peasant woman knew how to embroider and do needlework. In fact she was
taught that from childhood. In Ukraine embroidery was used to ornament
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